Hmong Competency and Recruitment - Iowa Association for College

Report
Hmong Competency and Recruitment
Presented by Jillian Hiscock, Meng Her, and Ashley Harville on behalf of the
Minnesota Association of Counselors of Color
Introduction
•
Jillian Hiscock
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•
President
College of St Benedict/Saint John’s
University
Meng Her
–
–
Chief Financial Officer
University of Minnesota, Morris
• Ashley Harville
– Chair of Programs Committee
– St Catherine University
What We Will Cover
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History
Family Structure
Gender Roles
Generation Gap
Hmong Pursuit of Higher
Education
• The Model Minority Myth
and the Hmong
• Tips Working with Hmong
Students
• Questions
History
• Hmong history is often
tied to the Chinese
• Originated in Central
China
– Chi-You: Believed to be
the leader of the
Hmong's ancestors
– “Miao” is a term in China
that refers to a number
of minority groups
including the Hmong.
Hmong History
Time Line Of Key Events
Time Line Continued
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1854 – 1873, “Miao Rebellion” was
crushed
1893 – French colonization of Laos
1918 – Madman’s War
1952 – Development of the Hmong
Written Alphabet
1954 – French Army surrendered,
ending French colonization of
Indochina
1954 – Laos became independent,
civil war broke out between the
Royalist Army and Pathet Laos
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1961 – United States begins
recruiting Hmong Warriors
1975 – United States pulled out of
Vietnam, General Vang Pao left Laos
1975 to 1980 – Arrival of the first
wave of Hmong into the US
1979 to 2003 – Second wave of
Hmong
2000 – Hmong Veteran Naturalization
Act of 2000
2004 to Present – Third wave of
Hmong immigrants to the US
Hmong by the Numbers
• 2010 Census – 260,076
Hmong in the US
• Minnesota – 66,181
• Wisconsin – 49,240
• Iowa – 534
• North Dakota – 33
• South Dakota – 94
• 30.7% ages 5-17
• 19.4% ages 18-24
• Median Age 20.4
Family Structures
• Patriarchal Society
– Father, Mother, Grandparents,
Children by Age
• Family belongs to Clans
– Clan: Consisting of those persons
who share the same paternal
ancestry.
– 18 Clans
• Cha, Cheng, Chue, Fang, Hang, Her,
Kang, Kong, Kue, Lee, Lor, Moua, Pha,
Thao, Vang, Vue, Xiong, and Yang
– Wife becomes part of husband’s clan
– Self-Governing, Clan Leader and
council of elders act as judge and jury
to settle family disputes
• Clans belong to community
– Council of 18 Clans, Elected Leader
and Council to settle disputes among
clans
Family Values
• Bigger is better
– High infant mortality
rate
– Needs the extra set
of hands
• Sense of belonging
• Extremely competitive
• Respect for age
Gender Roles
Male
Female
• Prized, Privileged, Power
• Do heavy work such as chopping
wood, killing and butchering,
some cooking
• Marry between the age of 16-20
• Men eat at separate table, or first
if only one
• More trust
• Expected to carry the family
name
• Expected to go out and get
educated, start business, primary
income earner
• Expected to learn how to sew,
cook and clean on daily basis
• Babysit the younger siblings
• Often have to ask permission to
go out, many times denied
• Mother acts as the mediator
between father and children
• Father head of household
• Expected to get married, have
and raise kids
• Marry between ages of 14 – 18
• Not uncommon to marry older
men
Hmong Pursuit of Higher Education
Then
• High standards
• First Hmong PhD Dr. Dao Yang 1972 in France
• First Hmong Women to earn PhD Dr. Dia Cha in
2000
• Boys encouraged to go to school
• Girls had to go to school to gain economic power
– Leads to community backlash
– Too old to get married
– Too independent
• Divorce Rates
Hmong Pursuit of Higher Education
Now
• 2010 Census
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Male High School graduate or higher: 69.7%
Female High School graduate or higher: 59.7%
Male Bachelor’s Degree or higher: 14.1%
Female Bachelor’s Degree or higher: 15.6%
No cause for celebration: Bachelor’s Degree or higher: 11.1%
• Causes for low percentage?
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Gang Affiliation
Poverty
Marriage
Family
• Much work needs to be done!
Generation Gap
• First Generation (Hmong)
– FOB, HTT
– Tend to abide by strict traditional
values
• Second Generation ( HmongAmerican)
– Loosen up on traditions
– Rebel
• Third Generation (American
Hmong)
– Not very much traditions at all
– What does it mean to be Hmong?
– Speak Hmong?
• Fourth and onward (American)
– Many abide only by American
values and cultural norms
Model Minority Myth
Misconceptions
• Asians are high test takers
• Asians are math and science
inclined
• Asians do well economically
• Asians don’t need the help
that other minority groups
need because they are selfsufficient
Hmong
• Average ACT score of
Hmong students: 17.7
• 1990 Census: 62% Poverty
• 2000 Census: 34% Poverty
• 2010 Census: 27.3% Poverty
• National Average 2010
Census: 15.1% poverty rate
• Did not choose to come
here
There is hope!
• Hmong when given the
opportunity excels
• Poverty rate improves
• Growing Businesses
• Doctors and Lawyers
• Increasing enrollment into
college
• Many have done well
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Lee Pao Xiong
Cy Thao
Mee Moua
Kou Yang
Many others leading the way!
Hmong Student Recruitment: How can
you help?
• Trust is huge issue: Recruit the whole family
• Know which generation of student you are working with
• Word of mouth is powerful, be known, outreach to events (New
Year, etc.)
• Hmong girls still have a hard time with cultural barriers
• Don’t condemn girls who married early, they will leave: lack of trust
• Be sensitive to cultural values
– Girls clean and cook at home
– Boys work to provide for family
• Scholarships
• Be committed to the population, know about us and we will know
about you
Questions?
• Thank you very much for coming we will be
around to answer questions.
Reference
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Khang, Mai S. (2010). Hmong Traditional Marital Roles and the Pursuit of Higher Education for
Married Hmong American Women. Retrieved From:
www2.uwstout.edu/content/lib/thesis/2010/2010khangm.pdf
Lao Family Community of Minnesota Inc. (1997) Hmong Culture. Retrieved From:
http://www.laofamily.org/sites/laofamily.org/files/Hmong_Culture.pdf
Lao Family Community of Minnesota Inc. (1997) Hmong Family. Retrieved From:
http://www.laofamily.org/sites/laofamily.org/files/Hmong_Families.pdf
Lee, Stacey J. (2007). The Truth and Myth of the Model Minority: The Case of Hmong Americans.
Issues in Children’s and Families Lives, Part 3, 171 – 184.
McNall, M., Dunnigan, T., and Mortimer, J. T. (1994). The Educational Achievement of the St. Paul
Hmong. Anthropology & Education Quarterly 25(1):44-65. American Anthropological Association.
Vang, T. and Flores, J. (1999). The Hmong Americans: Identity, Conflict, and Opportunity.
Multicultural Perspectives, 1(4), 9-14. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Watson, Dwight C. (2001). Characteristics of Hmong Immigrant Students. Childhood Education,
Annual theme.
Yang, Kao L. (2005). Hmong Compemporary Issues: Hmong American History Timeline. Copyright
2005 Kao-Ly Yang.
Yang, Kou (2003). Hmong Americans: A Review of Felt Needs, Problems, and Community
Development. Hmong Studies Journal, 2003, 4:1-23.

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