Essential Question: –What were the significant causes & effects of the War of 1812? Take notes on Madison video The Road to War: Renewed Conflict with England & France The Embargo of 1807 When England & France resumed war in 1803 & violated U.S. neutrality, Jefferson approved the unpopular Embargo of 1807 To enforce the embargo, Jefferson contradicted his principles of individual liberty & weak gov’t: – He mobilized the military to enforce the blockade – He declared regions of NY (near Canada) in a state of insurrection “NeverThe did aEmbargo prisoner, released of 1807from his chains, feel such relief as I shall on For 15 months the embargo shaking off the shackles of power.”—TJ proved ineffective; Congress repealed the embargo in 1809 The embargo gained no political Jefferson’s decision to not run for concessions from France or Britain a third term meant that these But it produced economic hardship, problems fell to his hand-picked smuggling, & political dissent in America successor, James Madison Congress repealed the embargo just In 1808, was left elected 3 daysMadison after Jefferson office president & the Republicans maintained control of the gov’t The Road to the War of 1812 …but England eagerly Madison The focus of Madison’s presidency continued to seize reopened trade was foreign policy:U.S. ships with England – In 1809, the Non-Intercourse Act promised the U.S. resume France agreed to endwould all trade restrictions (but never&stopped trade with England France seizing ships or impressing sailors) once U.S. neutrality is respected – In 1810, Congress replaced this with Macon’s Bill #2 offering exclusive trade to whichever nation 1st honored U.S. neutrality Which region would have supported athe Patriotism surged as War Hawks claimed Madison eventually gave in & Americans in the West & declaration of war the most? War of 1812 the “Second American Revolution” South wanted war to gain asked Congress for a declaration Canada & Spanish of war Florida in June 1812 NE Federalists thought war withMost Britain as for a mistake: calls war centered on British they feared the U.S. could interference with U.S. trade rights. not defeat a war Rights” was a “FreeEngland Trade &&Sailors' would bankruptpopular the country battle cry By 1810, War Hawks in Congress, led by Henry Clay (KY) & John C. Calhoun (SC), demanded war with England The War of 1812 War The U.S. did not of fare1812 well against the better-trained British troops the Despite increased patriotism, waswas unprepared war: The U.S. U.S. navy a little morefor successful but only because the bulk of to British – Congress refused raisenavy taxes was still fighting Napoleon in Europe – The army was small & state militias were inadequate – The government was incapable of directing a full-scale war The U.S. goal for the war was to attack British Canada & force England to respect U.S. rights The American army under Andrew Jackson defeated the British at New Orleans (after a peace treaty was drawn up ending the war) The War of 1812 In 1814, the British British were turned back at Plattsburg on Lake The British attacked the undefended took the offensive in a Champlain & gave up their Canadian offensive Chesapeake & burned Washington, DC 3-pronged attack & laid siege to Baltimore “Battle of New Orleans”—Johnny Horton (1959) In 1814 we took a little trip Along with Colonel Jackson down the mighty Mississip. We took a little bacon and we took a little beans And we caught the bloody British in the town of New Orleans. [Chorus:] We fired our guns and the British kept a'comin. There wasn't nigh as many as there was a while ago. We fired once more and they began to runnin' on Down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico. We looked down the river and we see'd the British come. And there must have been a hundred of'em beatin' on the drum. They stepped so high and they made the bugles ring. We stood by our cotton bales and didn't say a thing. [Chorus] Old Hickory said we could take 'em by surprise If we didn't fire our muskets 'til we looked 'em in the eye We held our fire 'til we see'd their faces well. Then we opened up with squirrel guns and really gave 'em ... well Hartford Convention The War of 1812 In order to reduce southern is still going on!! Federalists opposed the war by control of Congress not paying taxes or sending troops In order to break the Virginia In 1814, Federalists met at the presidential dynasty Hartford Convention to discuss altering the U.S. Constitution to: – restrict Congress’ war powers – supported a one-term president – abolish the three-fifths clause They discussed seceding from the USA if they did not get their way Treaty of Ghent Treaty of Ghent ended the war, but did not address U.S. neutrality Effects the War ofto1812: Spainofceded Florida the USA – Ended all Indian-British alliances in western lands – Scared Spain into signing the Adams-Onis Treaty in 1819 – The lack of Federalist loyalty was the fatal blow to the party Discussion Questions To what extent was the War of 1812 a “second American Revolution”? Which treaty was more significant in U.S. history: Jay’s Treaty (1794) OR the Treaty of Ghent (1814)? Explain Which president was more successful: John Adams or James Madison? Explain.