8. Wastewater Management and Reuse in Islamabad

Report
Wastewater Management
and Reuse in Islamabad
Lok Sanjh Foundation
Background
Islamabad Capital Territory
25 storm water streams flowing
through the Islamabad Capital
Territory (ICT).
Finally converge into two large
streams outside the ICT area
controlled by the province of
Punjab.
Management of urban
wastewater poses a serious
challenge for the storm water
streams flowing through the ICT.
Wastewater Challenges in ICT
The large quantities of storm water that flows out as waste from
the urban settlements into the natural fresh water streams are:
Now polluted with sewage, and
Solid wastes especially in the dry season
All the pollutants drains into the tributaries leading
to Soan and Korang rivers.
These
streams
also
provide
an
ideal
environment for the breeding of mosquitoes due
to the addition of sewage and solid wastes.
These streams also recharges the shallow
groundwater and as a result, the quality of
groundwater around these streams is extremely
poor in terms of bacterial parameters.
Pictorial View of Wastewater
Challenges (Sewerage System)
Pictorial View of Wastewater
Challenges (Sewerage System)
Pictorial View of Wastewater
Challenges (Solid Waste)
Pictorial View of Wastewater
Challenges (Solid Waste)
Pictorial View of Wastewater
Challenges (Solid Waste)
Pictorial View of Wastewater
Challenges (Solid Waste)
Pictorial View of Wastewater
Challenges (Solid Waste)
Pictorial View of Wastewater
Challenges (Solid Waste)
Pilot Stream
2 Minute Short Video Presentation
Freshwater stream originate from the “Ficus Spring“ of
Margala Hills in Trail # 5.
After crossing the Margalla Road, it enters into urban areas G/5,
Marriot hotel, G-6/3 and F-6/4.
Further, flowing back of Lal Masjid and Friday bazar it crosses
over Kashmir highway near Abpara Chowk.
Then enters in to the Rose and Jasmine Garden, where it
merges into another stream.
It continues flowing on back side of the Sports Complex and
crosses the Murree road at Faizabad intersection, finally falling
in to the Korang River.
Diagnostic Surveys and
Analysis
 An integrated approach to the field investigations was
employed in the pilot study.
 The practices of solid waste disposal on the banks of
targeted stream in Islamabad metropolis were examined.
 The water quality of the wastewater stream was monitored
at various locations where sewage water was being
disposed.
 Solid water disposal sites were monitored in order to
evaluate interactions and assess the possibility of stream
water contamination.
 Soil and water sampling; and laboratory-based
experimental and instrumental analyses were carried out.
Diagnostic Surveys and
Analysis
Practical Interventions
introduced in the Pilot Study
1. Campaigns were organized to create awareness
among the wastewater users at the tail-end
sections.
2. A Wastewater Users’ Organization was
established in the Sohan Village.
3. Farmers were trained through demonstrations
for organic compost making with the help of
EM technology at the selected farms.
4. The EM solution of 1:100 ratio (EM:Water) was
prepared for spray on the solid waste especially
the animal dung locally available in large
quantities.
Practical Interventions
introduced in the Pilot Study
5. The EM propagation facility has been developed
at different levels. The main facility is developed
using a PE tank of 500 gallons capacity.
6. Propagation facility was developed at ten selected
sites where ceramic containers are used to
develop larger amount of extended EM at the
selected locations starting from CDA nursery at
Trail #5 to provide enough time to enhance the
critical mass of micro-organisms.
What is EM Technology ?
E.M. is an abbreviation for Effective Microorganisms:
Microorganisms are tiny units of life that are too small
to be seen with the naked eye and they exist
everywhere in nature. Microorganisms are crucial for
maintaining the ecological balance. They carry out
chemical processes that make it possible for all other
organisms including humans to live. There are friendly
guys of the microbial worlds known as beneficial
microorganisms and a not so friendly group called
pathogens that are harmful and capable of producing
disease, decay and pollution.
EM origin: In 1982 Dr.Higa at the University of
Ryukyus, Okinawa Japan, discovered a specific group
of naturally occurring beneficial microorganisms
Practical Interventions:
Organic Compost Making With EM
Practical Interventions:
EM Propagation
Practical Interventions:
Domestic Use of EM
 Trainings of female were conducted and 250 bottles (1.5
liter each) of EM were distributed for usage in the toilets
and compost making from kitchen waste.
 Follow-up reporting was very encouraging. The use of
EM in toilets not only controlled the bad odour but also
started bacterial activity with the sewage and thus travel
time is increased.
Practical Interventions:
EM Application to Vegetables
and Wheat Crop
o Water tanks and EM solution were
provided to the participating famers free
of cost and farmers reported improved
health of plants.
Practical Interventions:
Aquatic Plants for Treatment of
Wastewater
o Treatment systems using aquatic plants consist
of shallow waters containing floating or
submerged aquatic plants.
o The water lettuce was used in the stream which
remained floating distinguished by their ability
to meet their need for carbon dioxide and
oxygen.
o Water pennywort plants were also used because
they have the ability to grow around the
wastewater by absorbing oxygen, carbon
dioxide, and minerals directly from the
wastewater and clean the water.
Aquatic
Plants for
Treatment
of
Wastewater
Water Lettuce
Pennywort
Oxidation by Using Small Stones
Oxidation of wastewater through creating turbulence by
using small stones has been applied as a possible
solution near the Faizabad Chowk. This is being
replicated at various points along the targeted stream.
Research Based Findings
o Wastewater samples were taken from 14 points from
Trail #5 to the end point, where this stream joins the
Korang River.
o All the points from the tail end were sampled where
farmers were pumping wastewater from the stream.
o The water samples analysis included physical and
biological/bacteriological
parameters
(EC,
pH,
Turbidity), major chemical parameters (Carbonate &
TDS) were tested along with wastewater parameters,
BOD (organic contamination), COD, dissolved oxygen
and total suspended solids.
Total coliforms, fecal coliforms and e. coli
were detected positive in all the 14 samples
and all the samples were microbiologically
contaminated and unfit.
Research Based Findings
 As for as fertility status of soils is
concerned,
available
phosphorus
ranged from 1.9 - 35.2 ppm which
indicates that soils of head portion are
weak in phosphorus as compared with
tail-end soils with high content of
phosphorus which is good for crops.
 Organic matter percentage less than 0.86% is
considered poor and soil tests shows that
organic matter ranged between 0.15 and 0.63
percent which is less than the limit of 0.86%.
Policy Implications
 There is no framework available with the federal
government (e.g. CDA) for the use of wastewater
polluted with sewage and thus effective regulations
are needed.
 As most of channels flow back and forth within ICT
and provincially administered areas of Punjab,
therefore regulations are need both at the federal
and provincial levels.
 Currently, there is no monitoring system enforced
either by CDA or the federal EPA to regulate the
disposal of domestic and industrial effluents in to
the fresh water streams.
In the ICT area the sole responsibility lies with the
Thank you!

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