Accelerator Frontier: Opportunities
for Impact
Stuart Henderson
PASI Meeting
April 4, 2013
Opportunities in HEP
Broad Uses of
Going Beyond Discovery
Science to Applications
Opportunities and
S. Henderson, PASI, April 4, 2013
Fermilab’s Accelerator Strategy
Establish a world-leading program at the Intensity Frontier, enabled
by a world-class facility
NuMI (120
350 kW
(8GeV): 35
NuMI (120
700 kW
(8GeV): 80
>2MW @ 120 GeV
3MW @ 3 GeV
1 MW @ 1 GeV
150 kW @ 8 GeV
…and use this program to provide a cornerstone
for an Energy Frontier facility beyond LHC
LHC Upgrades in
luminosity and energy
Technology Development and Fundamental Accelerator Science
…while relying on a strong program of technology development
and fundamental accelerator science.
S. Henderson, PASI, April 4, 2013
Opportunities in HEP and Discovery
Science: These are Well-known
Very important topics are present areas of focus:
Muon Accelerators (NF/MC)
High-power targets: RaDIATE collaboration, liquid metal
Superconducting RF
Beam instrumentation
…and fundamental accelerator science:
Technologies for HEP:
Concepts for optimized spallation target systems
Concepts for optimized irradiation target systems
Surface muon yields for MuSR -> Development of MuSR concept
Muon production target concepts -> development for high power targets
(1MW) for “high” (> 30 MeV) energy in-flight muon beams to drive next-gen
muon expts and kaon beam experiments.
Integrable Optics Test Accelerator, ASTA
S. Henderson, PASI, April 4, 2013
Opportunities in Fundamental
Accelerator Science: The ASTA Facility
ASTA includes an ~800 MeV electron linac designed and built to ILC specs (an “ILC
RF Unit”)
Low-energy and high-energy experimental areas
A small storage ring (IOTA) to explore novel non-linear beam dynamics
Proposal for ASTA completion and establishment of accelerator R&D user facility
S. Henderson, PASI, April 4, 2013
ASTA Science Thrusts
Intensity Frontier of
Particle Physics
Energy Frontier of
Particle Physics
• Nonlinear, integrable optics
• Space-charge compensation
• Optical Stochastic Cooling
• Advanced phase-space
• Flat beam-driven DWFA in slabs
Accelerators for Science
Novel Radiation Sources
• Beam-based system tests with
high-gradient cryomodules
• Long-range wakes
• Ultra-stable operation of SCLs
• High-brightness x-ray channeling
• Inverse Compton Gamma Ray
Stewardship and
• Generation and Manipulation
Ultra-Low Emittance Beams for
Future Hard X-ray FELs
• XUV FEL Oscillator
S. Henderson, PASI, April 4, 2013
Proton Accelerators for Science and
Innovation, n, something newly introduced,
such as a new method or device
It is becoming increasingly important to
demonstrate the relevance of HEP research
to real-world problems
Where are the opportunities for doing that?
S. Henderson, PASI, April 4, 2013
There are 30,000 Particle Accelerators
Making an Impact on Our Lives
Energy and
and Beams
National Security
S. Henderson, PASI, April 4, 2013
Discovery Science
Accelerators are Essential Tools
in Industry
A wide-range of industrial applications makes use of acceleratorproduced beams for
Semiconductor (chip) manufacturing
Cross-linking and polymerization for tires,
rubber, plastics
Sterilization, irradiation, welding,
hardening, cutting, inspection
There are ~20,000 industrial accelerators
Annual Market for industrial accelerator
systems: $1.9 B
Annual value of all products that make
use of accelerator technology: $500B
S. Henderson, PASI, April 4, 2013
Applied Materials, Inc.
Accelerators are Essential Tools for
Medical Treatment and Diagnosis
Tens of millions of patients
receive accelerator-based
diagnoses and treatments
each year
Siemens Eclipse Cyclotron (11 MeV)
marketed for PET isotope production
50 medical isotopes, used for
diagnosis and treatment, are
routinely produced with
There are ~9000 medical accelerators in operation in the world
Annual market for medical accelerator systems: $4 B
S. Henderson, PASI, April 4, 2013
Accelerators for National Security
Accelerators are used
for cargo scanning and
“active interrogation” to
detect special materials
…and in Nuclear Defense:
stockpile stewardship, materials
characterization, radiography,
and support of non-proliferation
pRad movie of high-speed shock test
of Sn disk at usec intervals
S. Henderson, PASI, April 4, 2013
What Are the Applications of
the Future?
S. Henderson, PASI, April 4, 2013
Accelerators for the Environment
Accelerators can
purify drinking water and treat waste
disinfect sewage sludge,
clean power-plant emissions by
removing NOX and SOX from flue
gases with high efficiency
R&D on new technologies may
lead to better and more costeffective approaches
Challenge: very high beam
power (MW-class and beyond) at
high-efficiency, high reliability
and low cost
S. Henderson, PASI, April 4, 2013
Accelerators in the Energy Sector
Accelerators have tremendous potential – largely untapped thus far – in the
Energy Sector:
Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors can transmute nuclear waste so it
is much safer and simpler to store, while at the same time generating
electrical power
Many R&D aspects can be pursued at a suitable facility: MYRRHA
Moving forward is hampered
MYRRHA Accelerator Driven
by lack of sense of urgency,
Reactor Project, Mol, Belgium
and focus on economics of
spent fuel and once-through
Generating electrical
power from nuclear fusion
by utilizing particle
accelerators: Heavy-ion
Inertial Confinement Fusion
Enormous Challenges!
S. Henderson, PASI, April 4, 2013
Applications of Accelerators:
Materials Irradiation
Materials for next generation fission reactors or fusion devices need an
order of magnitude greater radiation resistance than those in use today
Accelerator-driven radiation sources can provide fission/fusion-relevant
neutron fluxes
Zinkle and Busby,
316 SS
Materials Today 12
(2009) 12.
Fission reactors include
reactors (VHTR),
supercritical water-cooled
reactors (SCWR), gascooled fast reactors
(GFR), lead-cooled fast
reactors (LFR), sodiumcooled fast reactors (SFR),
and molten-salt
R. Kurtz, PNNL
reactors (MSR).
Accelerators for Medical Applications:
Radioisotope Production
Particle accelerators already are used to produce ~50 medical isotopes.
New high power accelerators can solve specific problems:
US-articulated Needs and Goals
Tenuous supply chain for clinically relevant fission-produced radioisotopes
such as 99Mo/99mTc (most commonly used radioisotope); need to develop
non-HEU production
Uncertainties in continuous access to specific radioisotopes for medical
Production of new clinically relevant isotopes
PoP demo of increased production of alpha-emitting radioisotopes for
New electromagnetic isotope separator facility
New, 30–40 MeV variable-energy, multi-particle, high-current accelerator
Initiative to address significant increase in demand as research
opportunities expand into general use
S. Henderson, PASI, April 4, 2013
Accelerators for Medical Applications:
Beam Therapy
Emphasis is on Carbon-ion therapy
Higher biological effectiveness
Superior dose distribution
Beginning to see emerging interest in
the U.S. (both public and private)
Proton Computed Tomography
(pCT): capability of distinguishing
subtle differences in density without
contrast medium
US-articulated Needs and Goals
Significant improvement in beam delivery and field-shaping systems
Motion correction – imaging, dose detection and flexibility of beam
Ability to locate the position of the target in real time – requires
substantial technical development
Reduce size and cost of accelerators and gantries
S. Henderson, PASI, April 4, 2013
Compact Accelerators
Much work ongoing world-wide to develop
compact accelerators which have the potential for
very compact (and less expensive) sources of xrays, electrons and protons for beam therapy,
radiation sources and other applications
• Laser wakefield, dielectric wakefield, laser/foil
ion sources, FFAGs, …
Concept for compact proton therapy
accelerator, LLNL
W. Leemans, LBNL
One billion volt
accelerator (1.3
inches long)
Can we Grow Connections with
Key Ingredients and Issues:
• Industrial capabilities
Industry does many things better than laboratories and
They don’t need help on old technologies (electrostatic
accelerators, conventional cyclotrons, RFQs, …)
The big players already have enormous R&D budgets
(Varian, GE Medical, …)
Lab capabilities:
Labs are out in front in terms of new technologies:
Laboratories build and operate expensive infrastructure
But, there are substantial barriers…
S. Henderson, PASI, April 4, 2013
Eric Isaacs (ANL Director) : “Historically, this is
how the labs have viewed industry…”
S. Henderson, PASI, April 4, 2013
Courtesy: Eric Isaacs
Eric Isaacs (ANL Director): “…and this is
how industry has viewed us. “
S. Henderson, PASI, April 4, 2013
Courtesy: Eric Isaacs
Making the Connections: the Illinois
Accelerator Research Center (IARC)
IARC is a new facility, expected to come online in FY15, depending on funding
IARC is a partnership between the DOE and State of Illinois with a mission to
bring together Industry, Universities and Fermilab to develop, demonstrate and
transfer accelerator technology to solve problems of national importance in
medicine, industry, energy, environment, security and discovery science
S. Henderson, PASI, April 4, 2013
View on Stewardship from the US
Department of Energy
Mike Zisman, DOE
DOE Stewardship-PASI
Connecting Accelerator R&D to Science and to End-User Needs
DOE Stewardship-PASI
Request for a new activity in accelerator R&D from SEWD
The Committee understands that powerful new accelerator
technologies created for basic science and developed by industry will
produce particle accelerators with the potential to address key
economic and societal issues confronting our Nation. However, the
Committee is concerned with the divide that exists in translating
breakthroughs in accelerator science and technology into applications
that benefit the marketplace and American competitiveness. The
Committee directs the Department to submit a …
10-year strategic plan … for accelerator
technology research and development to
advance accelerator applications in energy
and the environment, medicine, industry,
national security, and discovery science.
Accelerators for America's Future
Workshop: October 2009
Report: June 2010
The strategic plan should be based on the results of the Department's
2010 workshop study, Accelerators for America's Future, that identified
the opportunities and research challenges for next-generation
accelerators and how to improve coordination between basic and
applied accelerator research. The strategic plan should also identify
the potential need for demonstration and development facilities to help
bridge the gap between development and deployment.
Senate Report 112-075, p. 93. (Ordered to be printed September 7, 2011)
DOE Stewardship-PASI
The Accelerator R&D Stewardship Program
 Mission: to support fundamental accelerator science and technology
development of relevance to many fields and to disseminate accelerator
knowledge and training to the broad community of accelerator users and
 Strategies:
 Improve access to national laboratory accelerator facilities and
resources for industrial and for other U.S. government agency users and
developers of accelerators and related technology;
 Work with accelerator user communities and industrial accelerator
providers to develop innovative solutions to critical problems, to the
mutual benefit of our customers and the DOE discovery science
 Serve as a catalyst to broaden and strengthen the community of
accelerator users and providers
 Strategic plan sent to Congress in October 2012
DOE Stewardship-PASI
Next Steps
 Augment existing programs to provide infrastructure access for industrial
users at DOE facilities and to increase support staff and funding for
technology development at beam test facilities, such as ATF and FACET
 completed survey of available national lab infrastructure and capabilities
 develop plans via multi-lab workshop
 In the mid-term (2–5 years), identify a few topical areas with high impact for
focused work. Anticipated areas are: (1) improved particle beam delivery
and control for cancer therapy facilities; and (2) laser development
addressing the needs of the accelerator community, i.e., high peak power,
high average power, and high electrical efficiency. Each topical area will
have a stakeholder board.
 In the longer term (5–10 years), select additional topical areas for focused
work. New stakeholder boards will be created as topics are identified.
 In steady state, SC/HEP goal is to support at least three topical areas at any
given time.
DOE Stewardship-PASI
S. Henderson, PASI, April 4, 2013

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