Crude oil??

Report
14/15 Fall semester
Petroleum and Gas
Processing(TKK-2136)
Instructor: Rama Oktavian
Email: [email protected]
Office Hr.: M.13-15, Tu. 13-15, W. 13-15, Th. 13-15, F. 09-11
Outlines
1. Crude oil: Introduction and sources
2. Crude oil: Properties
3. The overview of refinery process
4. Crude oil products uses
Crude oil: Introduction
Crude oil??
Crude oil is a mixture of different sized hydrocarbons. The exact composition
depends upon where the oil comes from but typically it contains a lot of big
molecules
Fuel gas
Naphtha
Diesel
Petrol
Kerosine
Fuel Oil and bitumen
Crude oil: Introduction
Crude oil composition
Crude oil is a mixture of different sized hydrocarbons. The exact
composition depends upon where the oil comes from but typically it
contains a lot of big molecules
Crude oil is composed of the following groups:
1. Hydrocarbon compounds
2. Non-hydrocarbon compounds
3. Organometallic compound and inorganic salt (metallic compound)
The most common metal impurities found in crude oils are nickel,
vanadium, and sodium
Crude oil: Introduction
Crude oil composition
Crude oil: Introduction
Crude oil composition
Crude oil: Introduction
Crude oil composition
Paraffins
Crude oil: Introduction
Crude oil composition
Aromatics and napthenes
Crude oil: Introduction
Crude oil composition
Olefins
Crude oil: Introduction
Type of crude oil
Crude oil: Introduction
Crude oil properties
Crude oil: Introduction
Crude assay
a compilation of laboratory and pilot plant data that define the
properties of the specific crude oil
At minimum, it should contain distillation curve and specific
gravity curve
Crude properties
The true boiling point curve
a plot of the boiling points of almost pure components,
contained in the crude oil
or fractions of the crude oil
Crude oil: Properties
The true boiling point (TBP)
D.S. Jones, P.R. Pujady, Handbook of Petroleum
Processing, pp. 21
Crude oil: Properties
API Gravity
an expression of the density of an oil
refers to density at 60◦F (15.6◦C)
relationship with specific gravity
Crude oil: Properties
Flash point
the temperature at which the vapor above the oil will
momentarily flash or explode.
Testing using ASTM Standards Part 7, Petroleum products and Lubricants
Octane number
a measure of a gasoline’s resistance to knock or detonation in
a cylinder of a gasoline engine
that percentage of isooctane in a blend of isooctane
and normal heptane that exactly matches the knock behavior of the
gasoline
Crude oil: Properties
Cloud point
The temperature at which the oil becomes hazy or cloudy
Pour point
The temperature at which the oil ceases to flow altogether
Cut point
The temperature on the whole crude TBP curve that represents the limits
(upper and lower) of a fraction to be produced
End point
The actual terminal temperatures of a fraction produced commercially
Crude oil: Properties
Crude oil: Properties
The overview of refinery process
Oil refinery process history in Indonesia
1950 - The Indonesia government authority began to inventory the sources
of state revenue, including oil and gas
1960 - PT PERMINA was restructured into a state-owned company known
as PN PERMINA
1970 - the Indonesian government issued Law No. 8/ 1971, which
positioned Pertamina as the only state owned enterprise tasked with
managing the oil and gas business
The overview of refinery process
Oil refinery process history in Indonesia
The overview of refinery process
PT. Pertamina refinery
Pertamina also has 2 (two) operating companies i.e. PT Arun LNG
operating LNG plant in Arun (12.5Mton per year) and PT Badak
LNG operating LNG plant in Bontang (22.5 Mton per year).
The overview of refinery process
Oil reserves in Indonesia
The overview of refinery process
Oil reserves in Indonesia
The overview of refinery process
Block diagram
The overview of refinery process
Crude distillation unit (CDU)
1. Atmospheric crude distillation unit
2. Vacuum distillation unit
Atmospheric Crude distillation unit (CDU)
- Process objectives:
To distill and separate valuable distillates (naphtha, kerosene,
diesel) and atmospheric gas oil (AGO) from the crude feedstock.
- Process steps:
1. Preheat the crude feed utilizing recovered heat from the product
Streams
2. Desalt and dehydrate the crude using electrostatic enhanced
liquid/liquid separation (Desalter)
3. Heat the crude to the desired temperature using fired heaters
4. Flash the crude in the atmospheric distillation column
5. Utilize pump around cooling loops to create internal liquid reflux
6. Product draws are on the top, sides, and bottom
The overview of refinery process
Atmospheric Crude distillation unit (CDU)
-
Typical product:
The overview of refinery process
Atmospheric Crude distillation unit (CDU)
The overview of refinery process
Vacuum Crude distillation unit (CDU)
- Process objectives:
To recover valuable gas oils from reduced crude via vacuum
distillation
- Process steps:
1. Heat the reduced crude to the desired temperature using fired
Heaters
2. Flash the reduced crude in the vacuum distillation column
3. Utilize pumparound cooling loops to create internal liquid reflux
4. Product draws are on the top, sides, and bottom
The overview of refinery process
Vacuum Crude distillation unit (CDU)
-
Typical product:
The overview of refinery process
Vacuum Crude distillation unit (CDU)
Oil refinery products list
Products
- Petroleum gas - used for heating, cooking, making plastics
- Naphtha or Ligroin - intermediate that will be further processed to
make gasoline
- Gasoline - motor fuel
- Kerosene - fuel for jet engines and tractors; starting material for
making other products
- Gas oil or Diesel distillate - used for diesel fuel and heating oil;
starting material for making other products
- Lubricating oil - used for motor oil, grease, other lubricants
- Heavy gas or Fuel oil - used for industrial fuel; starting material for
making other products
- Residuals - coke, asphalt, tar, waxes; starting material for making
other products
Oil refinery products list
Products
Cylinder of LPG
Sample of
gasoline
Sample of
kerosene
Sample of
diesel fuel

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