CBI AND TBI 2 - TheoriesandMethods2

Report
INFORMED APPROACHES
Autor: Pedro Devera
Carnet: 1188508
C O N T E N T BA S E D I N S T R U C T I O N
 THEORETICAL
 CBI is grounded on the following two
BACKGROUND:
central principles:
CBI refers to an approach to
second
which
language
teaching
teaching
is
in
organized
 1. People learn a second language
more successfully when they use the
language as a means of acquiring
information, rather than as an end in
around the content information
itself.
that students will acquire, rather
 2. Content-Based Instruction better
than around a linguistic or other
reflects learners’ needs for learning a
type of syllabus.
second language.
C O N T E N T BA S E D I N S T R U C T I O N
 Theory of Language:
 Language is text- and discourse-based: CBI addresses the role of language as a vehicle
for learning content. The focus of teaching is how meaning and information are
communicated and constructed through texts and discourse.
 Language use draws on integrated skills: CBI views language use as involving several
skills together.
 Language is purposeful: Language is used for specific purposes. The purpose may be
academic, vocational, social, or recreational but it gives direction, shape, and ultimately
meaning to discourse and texts.
C O N T E N T BA S E D I N S T R U C T I O N
 Theory of Language Learning:
 Practical Applications:
 People learn a second language
_ LSP.
when they use the language as a means
_ Foreign language immersion
of acquiring information.
programs.
 Learning occurs when students are
_ Vocational and workplace
presented
with
instructional contexts.
materials
in
target
a
language
meaningful,
_ University-level foreign language
contextualized form with the primary
instruction.
focus on acquiring information.
_ Bilingual education.
C O N T E N T BA S E D I N S T R U C T I O N
 CBI PROS:
_ There is strong empirical support for
CBI.
_ CBI stimulates students to think and
learn through the use of the target
 CBI CONS:
_ CBI demands well-trained teachers.
_ CBI teaching materials may be
expensive. Materials must be adapted
language.
for low-proficient students.
_ CBI integrates teaching of the four
_ CBI applicability in Venezuelan
traditional language skills.
public high-school education is an
_ CBI employs authentic reading
uphill task.
materials.
C O N T E N T BA S E D I N S T R U C T I O N
 Personal Opinion:
 CBI
approach
is
an
that
 References:
empirically
draws
based
upon
the
 Richards, J., & Rodgers, T.
principles of Communicative Language
(2001). Approaches and
Teaching and seems to be suited for
Methods in Language Teaching,
academic literacy. As a matter of fact,
second edition.
all of the courses offered in this postgrade reflect several CBI principles.
United Kingdom, UK.
Cambridge University Press.
TASK BASED INSTRUCTION
 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND:
 an approach based on the use of tasks as the core unit of planning
and instruction in language teaching.
 It is a logical development of Communicative Language Teaching.
 Activities that involve real communication are essential for
language learning. Activities in which language is used for carrying out
meaningful tasks promote learning.
TASK BASED INSTRUCTION
 Theory of Language:
_ Language is primarily a means of making meaning.
_ Multiple models of language inform TBI: task-based instruction draws on
structural, functional, and interactional models of language.
_ Lexical units are central in language use and language learning: Vocabulary is here
used to include the consideration of lexical phrases, sentence stems, prefabricated
routines, and collocations, and not only words as significant units of linguistic
lexical analysis and language pedagogy. Conversation is the central focus and the
keystone of language acquisition.
TASK BASED INSTRUCTION
 Theory of Language Learning:
 Tasks provide both the input and output processing necessary for
language acquisition.
 Task activity and achievement are motivational: this is because they
require the learners to use authentic language.
 Learning difficulty can be negotiated and fine-tuned for particular
pedagogical purposes: specific tasks can be designed to facilitate the use
and learning of particular aspects of language.
TASK BASED INSTRUCTION
 Practical Applications:
 Language for Specific Purposes.
 Foreign Language Education.
 Academic Literacy.
TASK BASED INSTRUCTION
CONS
PROS
 TBI is more student-
 The risk that students will stay within
centered, allows for more
forms.
meaningful communication, and
often provides for practical
extra-linguistic skill building.
the narrow confines of familiar words and
 Some students can "hide" and rely on
others to do the bulk of the work and
learning.
 Difficulty of implementing task-based
teaching where classes are large and space
limited and/or inflexible.
TASK BASED INSTRUCTION
 Personal Opinion:
 TBI is an approach that may be used in Venezuelan public high-
schools because it might match the administrative evaluation system
(three terms a year, each divided in 70% and 30% of a total grade). In
this way, it may promote learning and increase motivation in students
while at the same time; it remains within the public high-schools
administrative constraints.
TASK BASED INSTRUCTION
REFERENCE
 Richards, J., & Rodgers, T. (2001). Approaches and Methods in
Language Teaching, second edition. United Kingdom, UK. Cambridge
University Press.

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