Understanding Recent Developments in 14-19 Education Policy Bill Martin Vocational Education Division Department for Education Natspec Employment Forum 11 March 2014 1 Rationale for change – why did we need to reform vocational education? ““For vocational education to be valued and held in high esteem, we must be uncompromising about the value added of vocational education.” November 2012 “ “…If it’s essential to drive up the standard of vocational courses, it’s even more important to recognise those higher standards in well-assessed, well respected qualifications.” November 2013 Matthew Hancock, Minister for Skills and Enterprise 2 The Wolf Review of Vocational Education How can vocational education for 14- to 19year-olds be improved to promote successful progression into the labour market and into higher level education and training routes? • Review informed by over 400 pieces of evidence from the public, visits to colleges, academies and training providers, and interviews and discussion sessions with key partners in the sector. • DfE implementing all 27 of Professor Wolf’s recommendations, benefiting almost half of all young people over the age of 14. 3 16-18 year olds in full-time The popularity ofparticipating vocational qualifications education / Apprenticeships (excluding HE) continues to grow More 16-19 olds are taking vocational qualifications: • from 101k – 214k in 5 years. • In the past five years, the proportion of learners entered for vocational qualifications at key stage 5 has increased from 30% to over half (52%). But employers report… • difficulties recruiting workers with technical and STEM skills (39%) (CBI, 2013). • school and college leavers lack basic numeracy (32%), literacy (31%) and experience (55%) Vocational Students 21% Higher achieving vocational students 21% Lower attaining students 11% Apprentices 9% Academic students 38% and Professor Wolf report found: • 350,000 students were taking qualifications with little or no labour market value. • performance tables (at 14-16) and funding rules (at 16-19) were preventing schools and colleges from addressing these issues. 4 The government’s vocational education reform programme 16-19 study programmes, work experience, English and maths and reforming the funding formula Vocational qualifications at KS4 and KS5 and qualification design with employer involvement. Rigorous standards for academic and vocational qualifications Performance tables, minimum standards and destination measures to drive changes to vocational qualifications. Traineeships, changes to apprenticeships, UTCs and 14–16 enrolment in FE colleges. 5 Implementation Most of Professor Wolf’s 27 recommendations have been or are in the process of being implemented. March 2011 Publication of the Wolf Review September 2012 First approved qualifications taught to 14-16 year olds. Work experience pilots. Richard’s review of apprenticeships. September 2013 First 16-19 study programmes , ‘per student’ funding. FE maths and English Bursary Scheme and CPD programmes. October 2013 Publication of Future of Apprenticeships in England: Implementation Plan. Apprenticeship Trailblazers. September 2014 First Tech Levels and Applied General qualifications taught to 1619 year olds, core maths (level 3) trialled, first TechBacc measure courses. Maths and English becomes a condition of funding students without a GCSE A*-C. Skills Funding Agency rules reflect pre-19 ‘Wolf’ developments. 6 16-19 study programmes • From September 2013, all 16 to 19 year-olds are expected to take a coherent “study programme” which is based on their prior attainment at KS4 and focused on enabling them to achieve their career ambitions. Substantial qualification (academic or vocational) and/or Meaningful work experience PROGRESSION TO FURTHER STUDY & EMPLOYMENT English and maths to GCSE A*-C (for those without this) Other non-qualification or ‘enrichment’ activities Destination measures EFA monitoring 16-18 performance tables Ofsted inspections Funding ‘per student’ Minimum standards/ intervention 7 Study programmes & SEN Study programme principles are intended to be sufficiently flexible to meet the needs of all students, including those with SEN, and should apply to all SEN students, whatever their level of study, for example: – if they are studying at Level 3 preparing for higher education, or – studying pre-entry level preparing for supported employment and independent living. However, some students with SEN may be better served by a study programme which focuses on work experience and nonqualification activity rather than qualifications. Study programmes need not include substantial qualifications if they are not appropriate. 8 Work experience & non-qualification activity Work experience undertaken as part of a 16-19 study programme can be defined as: • • • a period of time doing unpaid work with an external employer; it must provide the young person with the opportunity to work in an environment, independent from the place where they study (and interaction with their peers), and focus on the skills required for that job. 9 What will count as work experience? • Placement with an external employer Other non-qualification activities • • • • • • Experience within a realistic work environment Training in independent living CV writing Employer talks/workshops Enterprise activities Interview skills E M P L O Y A B I L I T Y Our expectation is that institutions will endeavour to offer external work experience as soon as possible, whilst planning to fully implement it from 2014/15. 10 English and maths All students with SEN should study English and maths if they haven’t already achieved GCSE A* - C grade. Where possible they should be working towards GCSE A* - C, or, otherwise, take other English or maths qualifications that will help them to achieve GCSE over a longer period of time. If that is not possible , they should be taught English and maths in a way which progresses their learning in these subjects and prepares them for employment. 11 14 – 16 Vocational Qualifications (from 2012) • • • • • Non-GCSE qualifications taught from 2012 had to demonstrate content, robust assessment and progression to count in performance tables. Only 4% of existing qualifications demonstrated the required characteristics. The remaining 96% accounted for 5% of school attainment (but much more in some schools). Schools and awarding organisations responded quickly to the reforms: • DfE ‘deep dive’ found around half of schools planned to change the qualifications they offered. • Many new qualifications are being developed to meet the new standards. The latest list (Dec 2013) includes new qualifications developed in partnership with industry. Number of non-GSCE qualifications counting in the school performance tables: 2011: 3175 2014: 140 2016: 180 12 16 – 19 Vocational Qualifications (from 2014) • • • • • From 2016 the two new categories of vocational qualification (Tech Level and Applied General) will be reported separately alongside academic subjects. Only high value vocational qualifications meeting Tech Level and Applied General characteristics will count in performance tables. First list of 227 approved and 91 pending Tech Level and Applied General qualifications published. Circa 90% reduction from the 3,721 level 3 vocational qualifications currently approved for teaching to 16 to 19 year olds in schools and colleges. Tech Levels in most vocational subject areas, however Information Technology is under-represented. Agriculture, Horticulture and Animal Care and Engineering and Manufacturing Technologies strongly represented. 13 The TechBacc measure will recognise the highest level of technical training and achievements of students aged 16-19 A performance table measure, not a qualification (like the EBacc). The right combination of qualifications will be recognised as meeting a national standard: Tech Level High-value level 3 qualification selected from the approved list (50% of curriculum time) Core maths qualification at level 3 e.g. A level, AS level, IB maths, applied maths qualifications. New qualifications being developed for 2015 Extended project qualification Level 3 research project with an industry focus The TechBacc Measure will be applied to courses starting in 2014 – first reported in 2016 14 14 – 19 Qualification Pathways (from 2014) Higher education Academic level 3 A Levels Higher education, apprenticeship or work Vocational level 3 Applied General/Tech Level GCSEs A*- C and approved level 1/2 qualifications Some occupations require a level 2 to move to level 3 Vocational level 2 occupational Vocational level 3 Tech qualification Level Vocational level 2 Occupational qualification Higher education, apprenticeship or work Apprenticeship or work In some sectors level 2 will allow entry direct to an occupation e.g. construction/hairdressing 15 General qualifications reform GCSEs • • • • Reviewed subject content to ensure breadth and depth Greater focus on key skills such as numeracy and literacy An end to modularity and a reduction in controlled assessment A reduction in the use of tiered exams where possible A levels • • • • A levels to be linear with more synoptic assessment and all assessment at the end of two years. A level content redeveloped in line with the Mark Smith report to ensure the qualification adequately prepares students for degree-level study. Universities advising on maths and languages A levels. AS will be decoupled from the A level, so that the marks do not count towards the final A level grade. 16 Reporting in performance tables Key stage 4 - from 2016: • Progress across 8 subjects “Progress 8” • Attainment across 8 subjects “Attainment 8” • Progress and Attainment across 8 subjects (including up to 3 vocational qualifications) • Percentage achieving a C grade or better in GCSE/iGCSE English and maths • English Baccalaureate (5 A* - C, English, maths, geography or history, the sciences and a language) Key stage 5 - consultation (response awaited): • A levels • Approved Tech Levels, Applied General qualifications and level 2 qualifications which lead to an occupation. • Progression from level 1 to level 2 OR level 2 to level 3 OR level 2 leading to an occupation. 17 What’s Next? 2014 February/March 16 – 19 Accountability consultation April New ‘full standard’ requirements for Tech Levels and Applied General qualifications published (assessment, employer involvement, grading) May List of approved level 3 early years qualifications published End of August First cohort taking approved 14-16 qualifications receive results 2015 Summer Deadline for submission of qualifications for judgement against full Tech Level and Applied General requirements. September First ‘approved’ substantial vocational level 2 qualifications taught. 2016 September Reform of 14-19 vocational qualifications counting in performance tables complete. 18 Questions or comments?