CONTENT-BASED INSTRUCTION (Saunt Augustine

Report
CONTENT-BASED
INSTRUCTION
(SAINT AUGUSTINE 1980)
BACKGROUND
Content-Based Instruction is;
 An approach for second or foreign language
learning.
 Organized around the content or information that
students will acquire.

Krahnke offers that;
Teaching of content or information in language
teaching by using the language.
WHAT DOES CONTENT MEAN?
Topic
or subject matter going to
be taught.
Through language we can
communicate.
CBI FOCUSES ON;
The integration of language and content
instruction.
 The language of content area.
 Using the language as a tool to acquire
information.
 Learner’s interests and needs.

IN MANY CONTEXTS STUDENTS LEARN
LANGUAGE AND SUBJECT MATTERS
SEPARATELY.
Language
classes
Subject
matter
classes
Language and
Subject matter
But in CBI, students learn language and subject matter
simultaneously.
CBI TAKES SOME OF ITS THEORY AND PRACTICE FROM
THESE CURRICULUM APPROACHES;
Language across the Curriculum
 Immersion Education
 Immigrant On-Arrival Programs
 Programs for Students with Limited
English Proficiency
 Language for Specific Purposes.

THE ROLE OF CONTENT IN OTHER
CURRICULUM DESIGNS.





Language Accross The Curriculum.
Reading and writing in all subject areas.
Language skills –teach in content
Immersion Education.
Language: Vechile for learning content.
Immigrant On Arrival Programs.
Immigrants
Real-world content
Programs For Students With Limited English Proficiency.
Supply children with enough language competency.
Language For Specific Purposes.
Specific task or job
APPROACH
The term CBI is commonly used to
describe approaches integrating language
and content.
 What is content?
The focus of CBI lesson is on the topic or
subject matter

THEORY OF LANGUAGE
 Language
is text and discourse
based.
 Language use draws on integrated
skills.
 Language is purposeful.
SEVERAL BASIC ASSUMPTIONS ON LEARNING.
THESE ARE,







Language is taught together with the content rather
than in isolation.
Using language as a means of acquiring information
is necessary.
The information acquired must reflect learners’
interests and need.
Some content areas may be more useful as a basis
for language learning.
Students are kept motivated and interested for
better learning.
Teaching builds on the previous experience of the
learners.
In CBI there is a mastery of subject content and
related language proficiency.
DESIGN
OBJECTIVES








Language learning is in the backgroud.
Priority given to content learning.
Objectives are determined by course goals or
curriculum.
An example of the objective of CBI in Berlin:
To activate and develop existing English language
skills.
To acquire learning skills and strategies for future.
To develop general academic skills.
To broaden students’ understanding of Englishspeaking people.
SYLLABUS


The syllabus is shaped according to the content.
Theme-based model →→ topical syllabus.
It is the organization of the Intensive Language Course at
the Free University of Berlin.
1. Drugs
2. Religious
Persuasion
3. Advertising
4. Britain and Race
Question
5. Native Americans
6. Modern
Architecture
7. Microchip
Technology
8. Ecology
9. Alternative Energy
10. Nuclear Energy
11. Dracula in Myth,
Noel and Films
12. Professional
Ethics
TYPES OF LEARNING AND TEACHING
ACTIVITIES












Active –Learning strategies
Integration of language and content
Two for one learning
content and language
Variety of similar subject matter.
Maximizing opportunities to use and practice English
Activity types by Stoller (1997);
Language skills improvement
Vocabulary building
Discourse organization
Communicative interaction
Study skills
Synthesis of content materials and grammar.
LEARNER’S ROLE








Learners are to be independent.
Active interpreters.
Colloborative.
Learn by doing.
Explore alternative learning strategies.
Make different interpretations →reading,writing.
Participate in the selection of topics & activities.
Be ready for the requirements of CBI.
THE ROLES OF TEACHER
To have knowledge about the content.
 To be responsible for selecting and
adopting materials.
 To create learner centered classrooms.
 To keep context and comprihensibility
foremost.

THE ROLE OF MATERIALS




Materials should;
be authentic and
comprehensible.
be relevant to
learners’ needs and
interests.
contain the subject
matter of content
course.



Textbooks are contrary
to the very concept of
CBI.
These make language
learning more
successful.
Some examples of
materials are;
newspapers,
magazines, radio and
TV broadcasts etc.
CONTEMPORARY MODELS OF CONTENT
BASED INTRUCTION
COURSES AT UNIVERSITY LEVEL
Theme based instruction;
Syllabus is organized with themes or topics like
pollution
 Sheltered content instruction;
For learners of ESL who has a specific purpose.
 E.g: Courses in English for business.
 Adjunct language intruction;
Two linked courses: content course↔language course
 Team-teach approach;
Variation on the Adjunct approach.
 Skill-based approach
Focus on a specific academic skill (academic writing)

COURSES AT THE ELEMANTARY AND
SECONDARY LEVEL
THEME BASED APPROACH




Selected topics or themes drawn from content area.
Teacher generated materials or adopted from outside
recources.
To integrate the topic into the teaching of all skills.
To assist learners in developing general academic
language skills.
ADJUNCT APPROACH
Content course ↔ Language course
Linked courses will assist students in developing
academic knowledge and cognitive skills that will
tranfer from one dicipline to another.
COURSES IN PRIVATE LANGUAGE
INSTITUTES
Theme-based model;
 provide framework and materials for
private language-school market, too.
 four skills and grammar are thought in
accordance with the main theme.
 maintains principles for many printed
EFL texts.

PROCEDURE
 CBI
is an approach not a method.
 No specific techniques or activities.
 Teaching materials & activities
organized according to the program
that matches with them.
EXAMPLE FOR THE PROCEDURES IN A CBI LESSON
LESSON BUILT AROUND A FILM









Linguistic analyses
Preparation for film
Viewing a segment of the movie.
Discussion of the film.
Discussion of the reading.
Videotaped interview.
Preparation for articles.
Presentation of articles
Wrap-up discussion.
CONCLUSION
ADVANTAGES OF CBI
More interesting and motivating.
 Real purpose.
 Wider knowledge of the world.
 Developing valuable thinking skills.
 Developing collaborative skills.

DRAWBACKS;




Teachers
A lack of training in content-based instruction.
Collaboration between the language teacher and the subject
matter teacher is imperative
Language proficiency of the subject matter teacher and the
language teacher
Students
Limited time to achieve adequate academic level
Instructional Materials
Little material available on the market
Assessment
How to assess subject matter and language skills within
the educational system

similar documents