mlti_march_20_2013_presentation_2

Report
Maine Learning Technology Initiative:
Impacts, Benefits and Costs of the School
Laptop Program
Dr. David L. Silvernail, Director
Maine Education Policy Research Institute
Caroline Pinkham, Research Associate
Center for Education Policy, Applied Research and
Evaluation
University of Southern Maine
Gorham, Maine, United States
March 2013
Maine Legislative Mandate:
 How are the laptops being used by
teachers and students?
 What are the benefits and impacts of the
laptops on instruction and learning?
 What are the costs of the middle school
laptop program?
 What are the relationships between
teacher and school characteristics and
laptop use?
2
Multi-Year Research and Evaluation
Strategies: A Mixed Methods Approach
1. Longitudinal survey studies with teachers,
students, principals, and others.
2. Selected site visits and observations.
3. Interviews with stratified samples of school
personnel.
4. Analysis of documents.
5. Controlled experimental and quasi-experimental
studies.
3
How Are the Laptops Being Used by Teachers
and Students?
www.usm.maine.edu/cepare/recent-cepare-publications
A Middle School One-to-One Laptop Program: The Maine
Experience
4
Table 1
How often are teachers performing the following
tasks?
100%
80%
60%
89%
81%
77%
76%
67%
88%
62% 58%
61% 57%
40%
26% 25%
20%
0%
Use your laptop
to conduct
research for
lesson plans or
curriculum
design.
Teach using
Use your laptop
Have your
Use your laptop Use your laptop
elements of
and/or student
students use
to communicate to communicate
technology (e.g.
laptops for
blogs, wikis,
with colleagues
with parents.
embedded
instruction during google docs, or inside and outside
hyperlinks, webclass time.
other web spaces
your school.
based resources,
to share
online interactive
assignments for
activities)
peer review and
discussion.
Middle School Teacher Spring 2011
High School Teacher Spring 2011
Key: A few times a week or more
Table 2
Percent of Middle School Students Indicating How
Often They Use Their Laptop
83%
Working with spreadsheets
17%
Working on short-term assign
74%
26%
Creating presentations
74%
26%
68%
Writing first drafts
32%
62%
Organizing information
38%
Taking notes
58%
42%
Editing papers
56%
44%
31%
Researching information
69%
0%
Once a week or Less
A few times a week or more
6
Table 3
Teacher Frequency Use of Laptop in Teaching 21st
Century Skills
Students use a computer to create a graph, table or chart as
evidence in explaining their point of view to you or their classmates.
17%
Students learn by using a computer to interact with the world
outside of school (via e-mail, online discussions, etc.).
22%
Students form opinions and solve complex problems by analyzing
and evaluating information obtained using a computer.
21%
Students learn things from more than one subject at a time (e.g.,
math and science) using computers as part of the project.
28%
Students evaluate information obtained on the Internet (for
accuracy, relevance, comprehensiveness, bias, etc.).
26%
Students use a computer to gather data or information about a
real-life problem.
30%
Students use a computer to gather information from multiple
websites to solve a problem.
40%
0%
20%
40%
60%
A few times a week or more
7
Table 4
Use Levels: High School 1-to-1 Laptops and iPads
How frequently do YOU perform the following tasks USING technology?
A few times a week or more
100%
84%
80%
76%
63%
60%
55%
45%
40%
20%
72%
69%
59%
45% 41%
28%
21%
0%
Assess student
Assess student
Adapt an activity Look up quick facts
Use your
Conduct research
understanding and understanding and
to students'
to inform your
technology
that contributes to
to inform my
to assign grades
individual needs
teaching.
together or
lesson plans and
teaching
(summative
(e.g., differentiate
individually for curriculum design.
(formative
assessment).
instruction, etc.).
student learning
assessment).
during class time.
iPad HS Fall 2011 (N=29)
HS Laptop Spring 2010- 1 to 1 teachers (N=422)
8
What are the Benefits and Impacts of the
Laptops on Instruction and Learning
9
Table 5
Teacher Perceived Benefits of Laptops for
Themselves*
70%
I am better able to individualize my curriculum to fit
student needs as a result of having the laptops.
54%
56%
I am able to cover more material in class when we
use the laptops.
35%
81%
I am able to explore topics in greater depth when we
use the laptops.
66%
73%
The laptops have become such an important tool in
my teaching that I cannot imagine teaching without…
55%
66%
Laptops have helped me to shift my teaching from
being more teacher-centered to being more…
49%
0%
Middle School Teacher Spring 2011
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
High School Teacher Spring 2011
* Percent Strongly Agree /Somewhat Agree
10
Table 6
Teacher Perceived Benefits of Laptops for Their
Students*
80%
Because of the skills my students are gaining through work with
the laptops, I believe they will be better prepared to compete in
the new, knowledge-based economy than will students without…
63%
60%
The laptops help my students better grasp difficult curricular
concepts.
45%
70%
Laptops make it easier for my students to demonstrate their
learning.
57%
70%
I am better able to individualize my curriculum to fit student
needs as a result of having the laptops.
54%
63%
My students take more pride in their work when we do projects
using laptops.
43%
0%
Middle School Teacher Spring 2011 teacher
* Percent Strongly Agree /Somewhat Agree
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
High School Teacher Spring 2011
11
Evidence Based Impacts
12
Impact Study 1: Improving Mathematics
Performance: The Importance of Professional
Development
Study Design:
 Random control trial (RCT) study on mathematics
 2-year professional development program
Results:
 Teacher knowledge significantly improved.
 Teaching practices and uses of technology changed.
 Students in experimental group classrooms scored
significantly higher on:
1. Tests specifically designed for the study
2. Statewide mathematics test
13
Impact Study 2: Improving Writing Performance:
The Importance of Matching the Technology with the
Learning Process
Study Design:



Causal-comparative study
Compared writing performance on statewide
Achievement test before and after introduction
of laptops.
Results:
 Writing scores improved approximately 1/3 of a
standard deviation.
 Twice as many students who used the laptops in the
writing program met state proficiency standards as
those who used laptops only as a “finishing” tool.
 Economically disadvantaged students outperformed
economically advantaged students in some situations.
 Overall writing performances significantly improvedboth using laptop and paper/pencil.
14
Impact Study 3: Improving Science Learning: The
Importance of Matching the Technology with the
Learning Content
Study Design:
 Field-based quasi-experimental study
 Using animation to learn earth science
Results:
 Students using animation scored significantly higher on
comprehension tests.
 Students who used animation had significantly higher retention
scores.
 Students who used animation reported experiencing “hard fun”.
15
What are the Costs of the Middle School
Laptop Program?
16
Table 7
2009-10 State MLTI Costs
Item
Units
Yearly Cost
1. Middle School Student
29,570 @ $242 per unit
$7,155,940
2. Middle School Staff
4,468 @ $242 per unit
$1,081,256
3. Network Fee per School
225 @ $7,817 per unit
$1,758,825
4. MLTI Staff
Ten full and part-time staff
Total Costs
Cost per Unit per Year
$471,905
$10,467,926
$308 per Unit per Year
17
Table 8
2009-10 Local School District MLTI Cost
Local District
No of
Laptops
Ave Cost
Per Laptop
Range in Yearly Cost
Per Laptop
Low
High
Small SAUs
(0-149 pupils)
1247
$215
$24
$333
Medium SAUs
(150-399 pupils)
3062
$342
$39
$976
Large SAUs
(400-2000 pupils)
5113
$288
$146
$412
All Districts (n=28)
9422
$283
$24
$976
18
Table 9
Average Cost per Laptop Unit per Year
No. of
Units
Yearly Cost per
Unit
Pre 1-to-1
Yearly Cost
per Unit
Post 1-to-1
District 1
4401
$262
$780
District 2
850
$577
$541
District 3
1079
$603
$516
District 4
540
N/A
$748
Non-Maine 1-to-1 Program Cost
Average
N/A
$481
$646
34,038
N/A
$591
District\State
State of Maine
19
Research in Progress
• Discrete mathematics
• Comparing achievement across states
• Characteristics of different adopters
20
Research in Progress: Success has
led to a new challenge
• Benefit of MLTI program=created equity of
access to technology for all students.
• Challenge of MLTI program=created
inequities in opportunities to learn well
using technology.
21
Research Question: “How do we
cross the chasm”
• Analysis using two paradigms for examining
technology use:
• Rogers (1962) theory of the diffusion of
innovations.
• Moore’s (1991) theory of disconnect
between adopter groups.
22
Rogers’ Categories of Innovation Adopters
•
Innovators: The groundbreaking teachers who place a high value on trying new
technologies like laptops, and are eager to use these new technologies even if they are not
sure how to use them.
•
Early adopters: These are teachers who believe strongly in the value of innovative
technologies such as laptops and are willing to try those new strategies that innovator
teachers have used with success.
•
Early majority: These are teachers who can be convinced to implement new
technologies like laptops once they have seen others teachers they respect use new these
new technologies successfully, and have been given professional development.
•
Late majority: These are skeptical teachers who need to be encouraged to use new
technologies like laptops even when they have received professional development. These
teachers have various reasons for their reluctance, but will conform to the cultural norms
of the school.
•
Laggards: These are the teachers who resist implementing new technologies such as
laptops, and will use these new technologies only when they are mandated.
Rogers Innovations Adoption Curve
24
Comparison of Rogers and Maine
Teacher Innovation Adoption Curves
25
Moore’s
Revised Innovation Adoption Curve
26
Comparison of Rogers and Maine
Teacher Innovation Adoption Curves
27
Perceptions of High and Low Users
Perception Categories
•
High Users
Low Users
A. Administrative Support
3.70*
3.50
B. Professional Development
2.31
2.11
C. Use Infrastructure
1.94
2.02
D. Perceived Benefits
3.84
3.19
E. Innovation Characteristics
1.79
2.43
Scale: Higher scores for Categories A, B, D=more positive perceptions; Higher
scores for Categories C and E=greater barriers.
28
Differences in Perceptions
• Administrative support is important, particularly to low
users.
• Administrative expectations and modeling behavior are
important.
• Low users less likely to take the initiative in acquiring
training, and turning to colleagues for help.
• More low users believe using technology will require too
much work to change their established curriculum.
• More low users do not believe that using technology is
compatible with the way they like to teach.
• More low users do not believe using technology will improve
their students’ learning.
29
Observations on the Maine MLTI School Laptop
Program
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
A clear strategic vision and plan is important.
Articulation and management of expectations is
important.
Technology use should be appropriate to the task.
Administrator support, expectations, and modeling are
important.
Strong, meaningful and sustained professional
development are crucial.
Professional development may need to be customized for
different categories of adopters.
Costs will vary depending upon program design.
Ongoing formative evaluation is very important.
28
Copies of MLTI research and evaluation reports
available on the following website:
http://www.usm.maine.edu/cepare
Inquiries may be directed to:
Dr. David L. Silvernail: Telephone: 207.780.5044 E-mail: [email protected]
Caroline Pinkham: Telephone: 207.228.8072 E-mail: [email protected]
Amy Johnson: Telephone: 207.228.8221 E-mail: [email protected]
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