Deliberative Issue Framing - Colorado State University Extension

Report
Colorado State Extension
Community Collaboration Training Program
February 2013 Session:
Deliberative Issue Framing
Trainer: Martín Carcasson, Director
CSU Center for Public Deliberation
Overview of Session
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
The National Issues Forum model
Initial issue analysis to set up framing
Naming
Framing the approaches
Available resources
I. Review of key deliberation concepts
Three Primary Forms of “Politics” as
Public Problem Solving
1.
Adversarial politics (competitive,
pro/con, activists, campaigns, interests groups,
mobilizations, elections, votes, coalitions, etc.)
2.
Administrative/Expert politics
(experts, data focused, research, facts,
technical solutions, bureaucracy, etc.)
3.
Deliberative politics (cooperative,
participatory, collaborative, public participation,
conflict resolution and transformation, mediation,
community focused, civic participation, etc.)
Decision-makers/
Politicians
Public/
Advocates
Experts
The deliberative
practitioner
Adapted from Throgmorton, “The Rhetorics of Policy Analysis,” 1991
I. Review of key deliberation concepts
Key Products of Deliberative Inquiry
1.
2.
3.
4.
the identification and attempted resolution of
key obstacles to collaborative problemsolving,
the identification and building upon of
common ground,
the identification and working through of
tough choices or tradeoffs,
the identification and development of
support for complementary and creative
action from a broad and inclusive range of
stakeholders.
I. National Issues Forums
Basic Features
One time meetings, 2-3 hours long
Use of particularly framed background material
Overall frame: What should we do about “X”?
Common problem with 3-4 approaches to address it
Approaches designed to insure full conversation and
spark understanding, not as “options” from which
to choose or vote on
Land Use Conflict: When City and
Country Clash
Approach 1: Reestablish the Free Market
 Approach 2: Protect Farmland and Open
Space
 Approach 3: Redevelop Central Cities
 Approach 4: Manage Growth on the
Rural-Urban Fridge

The “Placemat”
Stages of an NIF forum
Welcome
Ground Rules and Goals
Introduce Framework
Personal Stake
Deliberation
(Dedicated time for each approach focused on
appreciations and concerns)
Reflection
Questionnaire
National Issues Forums
Pros of the Model
Helps shift conversation from zero-sum frame and entrenched
perspectives
Places focus on arguments and interests, not simply positions
Very adaptable and easy on facilitators
Insures a broader conversation
Works against wishful thinking (magic bullets and devil
figures), but still supports action
Facilitates “working through” (common ground and tensions
are revealed both within and across approaches)
Allows for good data to serve its purpose
Allows for a broad range of actions
Sam Kaner, Facilitator’s Guide to Participatory Decision-Making
National Issues Forums
Cons of the Model
Puts a lot of pressure on the framing to jumpstart the
conversation; requires trust
Issue framing works well for divergent thinking, and
the forums work well to work through groan zone,
but convergent thinking tends to require other
techniques
Steps in Issue Framework
Development
Identify a public issue ripe for deliberation
2. Identify the underlying values and concerns
(i.e. common ground and key tensions)
3. Name the overall issue
4. Develop potential approaches
5. Identify specific actions, arguments for and
against, tradeoffs, and key discussion
questions
6. Research and refine the approaches
7. Test the framework
1.
II. Initial issue analysis to set up
framing




Issue analysis is based on qualitative analysis
on how various stakeholders talk about the
issue, informed by traditional expert
research
Significant examples of public discourse to
analyze may already be available, but often
some sort of open ended survey is used to
help gather additional insights
Survey data is often collected and posted to
support transparency
Typically not scientific, though asking
demographic questions can be helpful
Typical initial issue questions

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
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
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How do you see the issue?
Why is the issue important to you?
What concerns do you have?
What do you see as the main causes of the
problem?
How does the issue affect others they know, and
what concerns do those people have?
What should be done about the issue and by
whom?
What are the key challenges to addressing the
issue?
What does success look like?
Initial issue questions
Answers to such open ended questions provide more
clarity concerning the four key products:
 Obstacles are derived from how participants define
the issue and how they discuss opposing views
 Key values are directly derived from questions
about what is important to them and what concerns
they have
 Tensions are indirectly derived from dilemmas
arising from expressed values and interests between
participants. If a particular tension is clear, you may
consider asking about it directly to see how people
respond or asking about key challenges.
 Potential actions directly derived from questions
concerning actions from various stakeholders
Sample Initial Surveys
Stadium
I am excited about...
I am concerned that...
What additional information would you need to
decide about this issue?
 What is the most important thing you want the
advisory committee to understand about your
view of this issue?
 What questions/concerns/suggestions do you
have for the public engagement process?
 Additional questions or comments.



Sample Initial Surveys –
Poudre River Project
I am concerned that…
 One thing that is particularly valuable to
me is…
 I need more information about…
 One question I have is…
 I am struggling with…
 One tension I need to work through is…
 I believe we should…

Sample Initial Surveys - Dropouts

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Are you concerned about the number of high school
dropouts in our community? In what way?
What do you think concerns others in our community?
What are the most difficult challenges facing us related to
this issue in our community? What are the hard choices we
have to confront?
What do you think causes students to drop out of high
school?
What could be done to reduce the number of students who
dropout ? Who should be involved?
What other thoughts about this issue would you like to
offer?
What aspect of this issue does the public most need to talk
about?
Sample Initial Surveys
1. What do you think is the biggest success the
Colorado Wine Industry has achieved in the last 5
years?
2. To what do you attribute that success?
3. What issues do you have as an individual/business
concerning the CO wine industry?
4. What do you think the top 3 challenges currently
facing the further growth of the Industry?
5. How would you suggest best facing those challenges?
6. What would you like to be involved in as the Industry
moves forward (e.g. task force, CAVE Subcommitee,
special events)?
7. Any other comments, suggestions, or questions?
Sample Initial Surveys
Silver Tsunami
1) Fort Collins has received many awards and accolades for being a
great place to live, including many awards that specifically celebrate
Fort Collins as a great place to retire. For you, what is at least one
thing about Fort Collins that helps make it a wonderful place for older
residents? When we are at our best, what do we do well?
2) For all of us, we need to be thinking of the years we grow older as
a time to live our dreams, to challenge ourselves, to embrace what
might be, to experiment, to invest ourselves in other possibilities.
Regardless of your current age, what are you most excited about
doing with your time during that stage of your life (50+)?
3) Imagine it is 10 years from now, and Fort Collins is recognized
nationwide as the community that got it right and reacted beautifully
to the changing demographics by creating the ideal community for
older Americans. What happened? What did we do? If you like, you can
utilize the categories from the Community Readiness Chart to help
you think about potential areas of improvement.

Sample Initial Surveys
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What do you see as the key benefits to building the local food
economy?
What do you see as the key concerns that could arise as our local
food economy grows?
What obstacles do you feel are currently limiting the local food
economy?
What actions, either by government, organizations, or individuals
do you suggest?
Who are the key stakeholders and organizations you feel would
need to be involved in this issue?
A key issue with building the local food economy is finding the right
balance between providing support and flexibility, while also
protecting public health and the local environment. What thoughts
do you have on these challenges?
What are some of the key questions we need to be asking at this
point?
Analysis of Surveys
Read through them question by question
(not person by person)
 Identify key recurring themes, particularly
around the 4 key products
 When possible, multiple passes and
additional people can assist with coding
and analysis
 Grouping related key themes assists with
approach development later

Using GoogleDocs for Online Surveys
Step 1: Create new “Form”
Step 2: Choose Title and Theme
Step 3: Add questions
Question types
1.
2.
3.
4.
Paragraph text
Multiple choice (choose one)
Checkboxes (choose all that apply)
Choose from a list (dropdown menu)
Typical progression:
• Demographic questions
• Open-ended
• More specific
Three Main Page Types
Edit form (to build and make changes)
 Live form (the public face)
 The Responses (a spreadsheet)

Moving between types
Live form
Responses
CSU URL Shortener
s.colostate.edu
From
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/11mQJHG-5dvwue7fL7xUqNr2RSPYxfEiNJAOe4OwYJNk/viewform
to
http://col.st/VVcC96
Steps in Issue Framework
Development
Identify a public issue ripe for deliberation
2. Identify the underlying values and concerns
(i.e. common ground and key tensions)
3. Name the overall issue
4. Develop potential approaches
5. Identify specific actions, arguments for and
against, tradeoffs, and key discussion
questions
6. Research and refine the approaches
7. Test the framework
1.
Naming
Choose a broad frame for the issue that
can include all key stakeholder’s concerns
 Avoid inflammatory terms and think
carefully about word choice and imagery
 Overall frames typically focus on a
common problem or a common goal
 Overall frames are often a question:

◦ What should we do about X?
◦ How can we achieve x?
◦ How can we optimize safety in our schools?
2
CPD Framings
How should we improve high school
graduation rates in Colorado?
 What should we do about medical
marijuana dispensaries?
 How should we meet our future water
needs in Colorado?

Steps in Issue Framework
Development
Identify a public issue ripe for deliberation
2. Identify the underlying values and concerns
(i.e. common ground and key tensions)
3. Name the overall issue
4. Develop potential approaches
5. Identify specific actions, arguments for and
against, tradeoffs, and key discussion
questions
6. Research and refine the approaches
7. Test the framework
1.
Different approaches could
focus on:



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

Different primary actors for the action, particularly
individuals, different groups, communities, or
government.
Different policy ideas
Different views of the source or cause the
problem
Different degrees of response
Distinctions between the “three E’s” of education,
engineering, or enforcement (or incentives).
Different ideal futures
p.47
What is our food future?
Approach 1: Taking Personal Stock:
Reassessing Lifestyle,Values, and Choices
 Approach 2: Local Matters –
Re-embedding food in community
 Approach 3: Increase Food Production –
More People = More Demand

Land Use Conflict: When City and
Country Clash
Approach 1: Reestablish the Free Market
 Approach 2: Protect Farmland and Open
Space
 Approach 3: Redevelop Central Cities
 Approach 4: Manage Growth on the
Rural-Urban Fridge

Affordable Housing: What Are our Options?
Approach1: Create and implement
government programs to encourage more
development of affordable housing
 Approach 2: Community members and
stakeholders must accept responsibility
for the well-being of all residents
 Approach 3: Improve education and
communication for all stakeholders

Intimate Partner Violence: What Can
We Do?
Approach 1: Make it Easier to get Help
 Approach 2: Stop the Bleeding
(stronger enforcement, punishment, and
assistance to victims)
• Approach 3: Break the Cycle
(change the culture of violence)

What should we do about
childhood obesity?
Approach 1: Families must take
responsibility
 Approach 2: Schools should step up
• Approach 3: Government must use its
power

How should we meet our
future water supply needs?
Approach One: Focus on Addressing
Growth
 Approach Two: Focus on Urban
Conservation
 Approach Three: Focus on Storage
Projects
 Approach Four: Focus on Agriculture
Conservation and Transfers

What should we do about medical
marijuana dispensaries?
Approach 1: Regulate production and
distribution to the greatest extent
possible
 Approach 2: Focus on health and safety of
community and patients foremost
 Approach 3: Let the industry self-regulate
and the market work

Focus on Longmont:
Share Your Vision, Create Our Legacy
Direction for the Future 1 : Enrich the
Experience of Living in Longmont
 Direction for the Future 2: Enhance the
Environment, Natural and Built
 Direction for the Future 3: Expand
Prosperity through Innovation, Efficiency and
Education
 Direction for the Future 4: Extend the
Principles of Cooperation and Shared
Responsibility Throughout the Community

What are the 21st Century
Responsibilities of Citizenship?
Approach 1: Citizens should be
personally responsible.
 Approach 2: Citizens should also be
engaged and informed constituents.
 Approach 3: Citizens should also be
collaborative problem solvers in their
local communities.
 Approach 4: Citizens must take a global
view of their responsibilities.

Different approaches could
focus on:






Different primary actors for the action, particularly
individuals, different groups, communities, or
government.
Different policy ideas
Different views of the source or cause the
problem
Different degrees of response
Distinctions between the “three E’s” of education,
engineering, or enforcement (or incentives).
Different ideal futures
p.47
Issues with Issue Framing
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Avoid directly opposing approaches (each approach
should include discussion of its opposite inherently)
Usually avoid status quo as an option
Popular framings v. reframing
How to deal with popular options that aren’t realistic or
supported by data
Length/Level of detail
Order of the approaches
Minimizing making the document the focus: frame the
framing as a starting point, a living document, something
to react to, etc.
Steps in Issue Framework
Development
Identify a public issue ripe for deliberation
2. Identify the underlying values and concerns
(i.e. common ground and key tensions)
3. Name the overall issue
4. Develop potential approaches
5. Identify specific actions, arguments
for and against, tradeoffs, and key
discussion questions
6. Research and refine the approaches
7. Test the framework
1.
Placemat Template
Common Forms
The One Page Placemat
 The Four Pager

◦ Intro, one page per approach
◦ Intro, approaches on pp.2-3, reflections
questions on the back

The Eight Pager
◦ Intro, 2 pages per approach with writing space

The full book with the 2 page “placemat”
summary
Resources for NIF framings
National Issues Forum (www.nifi.org)
 Public Agenda (www.publicagenda.com)
 Everyday-Democracy Issue Guide
Exchange (http://www.everydaydemocracy.org/Exchange/index.aspx)

Steps in Issue Framework
Development
Identify a public issue ripe for deliberation
2. Identify the underlying values and concerns
(i.e. common ground and key tensions)
3. Name the overall issue
4. Develop potential approaches
5. Identify specific actions, arguments for and
against, tradeoffs, and key discussion
questions
6. Research and refine the approaches
7. Test the framework
1.

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