evidence-based impact of positive psychological capital

Report
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Nside Leadership
Authentic Leadership Development
The process that draws upon a leader’s life course,
psychological capital (hope, confidence, resilience,
and optimism), moral perspective, and a “highly
developed” supporting organizational climate to
produce greater self-awareness and self-regulated
positive behaviors, which in turn foster continuous,
positive self-development resulting in veritable,
sustained performance.
– Dr. Bruce J. Avolio
(Research Advisor at University of Nebraska-Lincoln)
Knowing others is intelligence; knowing
yourself is true wisdom. Mastering others is
strength, mastering yourself is true power. ~
Lao-Tzu
 He that knows himself knows others. ~ Colton
 If you know the enemy and know yourself, you
need not fear a hundred battles. ~ Tzu-Sun
 Knowing yourself is the beginning of all wisdom.
~ Aristotle
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Know thyself means this, that you get acquainted
with what you know, and what you can do. ~
Menander
Yes, know thyself: in great concerns or small. Be this
thy care, for this, my friend, is all. ~ Juvenal
Make it thy business to know thyself, which is the
most difficult lesson in the world. ~ Miguel de
Cervantes
The only journey is the journey within. ~ Rainer
Maria Rilke
The unexamined life is not worth living. ~ Socrates
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Nside Leadership
 Nside Leadership = “Self” Leadership
 “Self” Leadership has been broadly defined
as "the process" of influencing oneself to
establish the self-direction and selfmotivation needed to perform.
 The practice of effective self-leadership by
employees can lead to numerous benefits
including improved job satisfaction, selfconfidence, and mental performance.
 Nside Leadership requires strength within
(strength with N)
Background
 Scientist-Practitioner Perspective
 Holistic Approach:
Mind-Body-Spirit
 Focus Areas:
› Ancient Teachings
› Cultural Practices
› Scientific Discovery
› Personal Life Experiences
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Strength:

physical power: the physical power to carry out demanding tasks. It took all
our strength to lift the heavy table.

emotional toughness: the necessary qualities required to deal with
stressful or painful situations. She showed great strength throughout the trial.

source of support: a source of strength or support

resistance: the ability to withstand force, pressure, or stress "tensile
strength"

defensive ability: the ability to resist attack

asset or quality: a valuable or useful ability, asset, or quality . One of the
strengths of this system is its adaptability.

Nstrength can be developed much like physical
strength:
› Regimented training program
› Targeted muscle groups
› Life long process
› No Pain—No Gain!
Nstrength (Phase I)
Target Muscle Groups
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2.
3.
4.
5.
Self-Awareness (SA)
Emotional Intelligence (EI)
Mindfulness (MI)
Psychological Capital (PsyCap)
Rational-Ethical Decision Making
(Red)
Work Performance = Success = $$$
Nstrength
Teamwork &
Effective
Communication
Morale, Retention, &
Well-Being
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Self-Awareness (SA)
Self-Awareness: Aware of oneself, including
one's traits, feelings, and behaviors.
 Tools to help increase one’s self-awareness

› Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
› True Colors® is a simple model of personality
identification for people of all ages that improves
communication through recognition of a persons
true character.

True Colors® utilizes the colors of gold,
orange, blue, and green to differentiate four
basic personality types.
Self Awareness -At Work… (other areas of focus: In Love, In Childhood)
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Orange:

Green:
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Gold:

Blue:
I am bored and restless with jobs that are routine and structured,
and satisfied in careers that allow me independence and freedom while using
my physical coordination and my love of tools. I view any kind of tool as an
extension of self. I am a natural performer.
I am conceptual and an independent thinker. For me, work is play. I
am drawn to constant challenges in careers, and like to develop models,
explore ideas, or build systems to satisfy my need to deal with the innovative.
Once I have perfected an idea, I prefer to move on, leaving the project to be
maintained and supported by others.
I provide stability and can maintain organization. My ability to handle
details and to work hard make me the backbone of many organizations. I
believe that work comes before play, even if I must work overtime to complete
the job.
I have a strong desire to influence others so they lead more significant
lives. I often work in the arts, communications, education, and the helping
professions. I am adept at motivating and interacting with others.
Reference: “Keys to Personal Success” (2008, Color Cards) by Don Lowry
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Emotional Intelligence (EI)
Anyone can become angry-that is easy. But to be angry with the
right person, to the right degree, at the right time, for the right
purpose, and in the right way—this is not easy. ~ Aristotle

Emotional intelligence refers to the ability to
recognize the meanings of emotion and their
relationships, and to reason and problemsolve on the basis of them. Emotional
intelligence is involved in the capacity to
perceive emotions, assimilate emotion-related
feelings, understand the information of those
emotions, and manage them.
Emotional Intelligence -5 Steps to Improve Your Emotional Intelligence:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Examine how you make appraisals. (Appraisals = impressions,
interpretations, evaluations, and expectations YOU have about yourself, other
people, and situations.)
Tune in to your senses. (Seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, and touching – the
sources of ALL your data about the world)
Get in touch with your feelings. (Although feelings are internal, they often
have outward manifestations. By paying close attention to these outward
signs, you can begin to understand the feelings they reflect. For example, you
may find your face gets warm when you get embarrassed.)
Learn what your intensions are. (Intentions can refer to your immediate
desires: what you would like to accomplish today, in a specific situation, in the
coming week.)
Pay attention to your actions. (Actions are physical, they can be observed by
others, and we can observe them if we choose. They may be considered clues
to our attitudes and behavior. For example, speech patterns, body language,
nonverbal behavior—enables you to help others perceive you more
accurately.)
Reference: “Emotional Intelligence at Work” (1998, Page 6-22) by Dr. Hendrie Weisinger
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Mindfulness (MI)

The practice of living in the present moment
and experiencing things without judgment.

Has both a mental and a physical component
and emphasizes a mind-body connection.

Can be a worthwhile practice for those who
wish to reduce stress, manage pain, or
cultivate personal awareness.
Opportunity
or
Threat
Mindfulness Npractice
Self-Awareness
Mindfulness
- Scanning environment
- Attention stability
- Distinction making
Leader reflects upon
their:
- Values
- Identity
- Emotions
- Motives/Goals
Self-Confidence
- Domain specific
- Based on practice/mastery
- Improvement potential
- Influence by others
- Confidence is variable
Cognitions + Emotions
Empathy
- Perspective
Taking
Decision Making or Problem Solving
Process
ACTION
Decision Made
Or
Solution Obtained
Mindfulness -While Out for a Walk:
Take deep breaths and try to identify as many
different smells as you can.
2. Pay close attention to all the sounds you can hear,
particularly those you usually tune out.
3. Focus on everything your body is feeling: your
sleeves against your arms (soft? scratchy?), your
foot in your shoe (cramped? Springy), the surface
under foot (hard? uneven?).
1.
Reference: “Emotional Intelligence at Work” (1998, Page 12) by Dr. Hendrie Weisinger
Economic Capital
Psychological
Capital
What you have
Human Capital
What you know
(PsyCap)
Social Capital
Who you know
Psychological Capital
Intentions for who
you are and who
you can become
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Psychological Capital (PsyCap)
 Hope - A positive motivational
state where two basic elements
(“Will” Power and “Way” Power)
interact.
 Self Confidence – Is defined as an
individual's confidence in their
ability to achieve a specific goal in
a specific situation.
Psychological Capital
 Optimism:
› An optimistic person has an "Internal Locus of Control” regarding
their life (I have influence over my future).
› An optimistic person has a “situational or isolated focus” when it
comes to negative events. This means they do not believe that a
negative event will continue to occur (My failing grade on Exam 1
was a “one time” bad deal, I’ll do better on Exam 2).
› Optimism relates to what an employee can or cannot do, as such,
optimism reinforces self confidence and hope.
 Resiliency:
A positive way of coping with danger
or distress. In the workplace, it is defined as an ability to
recuperate from stress, conflict, failure, change or increase
in responsibility.
 PsyCap
is positively related to work
performance outcomes of all types.
 PsyCap development
- Job satisfaction
- Commitment
- Engagement
- Creativity
increases:
- Positive attitudes
- Positive emotions
- Trust in leadership
- Well-being/Health
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PsyCap -Hope Development: Practice generating goals that are
personally valuable and reasonably challenging, that also
include a clear beginning and ending point.
 Optimism Development: Building confidence in developing
paths to our goals and overcoming obstacles increase positive
expectations. As our expectations for success increase, so will
our optimism.
 Self-Confidence Development: Practice laying out individual
steps to accomplish our goals. Additionally, talk to others who
have been successful in completing similar goals.
 Resiliency Development: Build awareness of your positive
assets such as your talents, skills, and social networks. Focus
on making plans to avoid obstacles that will prevent you from
achieving your goals. Finally, choose to focus on resilient
thoughts to overcome adversity.

Reference: “Psychological Capital: Developing the Human Competitive Edge” (2007, Page
215) by Fred Luthans, Carolyn M. Youssef, & Bruce J. Avolio.
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Rational & Ethical Decision Making (Red)
Rational = able to think clearly and sensibly,
unimpaired by physical or mental condition,
strong emotion, or prejudice
 Ethical = conforming to accepted
standards: consistent with agreed principles of
correct moral conduct
 High Mental Workload = Too much “stimulus”
can short-circuit rational, ethical decision
making. (Fire Hose Effect//Fog & Friction)
› Emotions (e.g., anger/lust) can over-ride
logic, facts, integrity, & common sense.
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Enhanced Problem Solving &
Decision Making
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The OODA loop (observe, orient, decide, and
act) is a decision making model originally
designed for air-to-air combat in the Korean
War .
› OODA Loop was developed by military strategist
and USAF officer, Colonel John Boyd.
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The OODA Loop is now often applied to
understanding commercial operations and
learning processes. (e.g. AFSO 21)
O-O-D-A Loop
5-ACT
The Cognitive Miser (Lazy Thinker)
3-ORIENT
Interaction between:
2-OBSERVE
External Environment
- Unfolding Events
- Outside Information
-Interaction with
Environment
Focus:
Mindfulness
- New Information
- Genetic Heritage
- Cultural Traditions
- Experience/Training
-Analyses & Synthesis
FOCUS:
•Short Term Sensory Storage (Sight,
Sound, Smell, Touch)
•Working Memory (Reduced capacity
due to prolonged periods of stress
•Long Term Memory (Knowledge and
Emotional Experiences)
Feedback
4-DECIDE
(Hypothesis)
Focus:
• Working
Memory
Capacity
• Critical
Thinking
Skills
• Realistic &
Effective
Training
1-Nstrength
FOCUS:
•SA/EI/MI/PSYCAP/RED
Feedback (Unfolding interaction with environment)
Rational-Ethical D.M. -Identify the Issue
Analyze the Issue
Clarify & Validate the
Problem
Standardize Successful
Processes
Break Down the
Problem/ Identify
Performance Gaps
Develop Alternatives
Confirm Results &
Processes
Set Improvement Target
Evaluate Alternatives
See Countermeasures
Through
Determine Root Cause
Make a Recommendation
Develop
Countermeasures
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Nstrength facilitates Self/Inside Leadership
› Possibly the most important type of leadership known
 Nstrength can be developed in short (3 hour),
highly focused development sessions/modules.
 Nstrength can accelerate the development of
“wisdom” over one’s life.
› May prevent individuals from making those “3 Second”
bad decisions that last a life time or cost a life.
› Increase overall happiness and fulfillment – hopefully
making one’s life too precious to destroy.
Nstrength:
Close’N Thought
There is a person with whom you spend more
time than any other, a person who has more
influence over you, and more ability to
interfere with or to support your growth
than anyone else. This ever-present
companion is your own self.
-Dr. Pamela Butler, Clinical Psychologist
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Jeffrey “COG” Coggin, Lt Col, USAF
DSN: 493-3488//COMM: 334-953-3488
E-Mail: [email protected]
The N
THANK YOU!
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