The Art of Rhetoric: Ethos, Pathos and Logos

Report
“the art of persuasion”
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1. The art of speaking or writing
effectively
2 . Writing, speaking or communicating
as a means of persuasion.
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Speeches
Advertisements
Films
Media
Conversation
The classroom
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Rhetoric originated in Ancient Greece, where
political leaders would use their public
speaking abilities to persuade people for
political decisions.
Rhetoric was also used to spread new ideas
and philosophies during this time.
The ancient Greeks referred to it as “the art of
persuasion,” and created a discipline so it can
be studied.
Divided rhetoric into
three essential
components:
Logos,
Pathos
and
Ethos.
How the character and credibility of a speaker
will influence an audience.
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Example:
Listening to a speech by a top NASA scientist
on climate change, rather than a first year
university student.
Speaker must also be impartial
(not biased) or else they lose
credibility.
i.e. Having an oil company
appoint a scientist to lecture
against on climate change
would constitute a bias.
BIAS: having a slanted or distorted
point of view; having a subjective
point of view as opposed to an
objective one
SUBJECTIVE: based on one’s opinions and
feelings
OBJECTIVE: based on fact, NOT influenced
by personal feelings
WOULD YOU BUY A USED CAR FROM THIS MAN?
Which Second World War politician is more credible?
Which politician would you trust more?
What subjects would
Stephen Hawking be a
credible speaker?
What subject might he
not be so credible?
Based on reputation – which pretty, little
liar is most trustworthy?
Is Lebron
James a
credible
spokesperson
for Nike
basketball
products?
WHY?
Is he a credible
spokesperson
for all
products?
Which products would you NOT buy
even if Lebron recommended them?
Have you seen Katy
Perry’s “ProActiv
ads?
Is she a credible
spokesperson?
Why is Tiger recommending “YOU” buy this brand of watch?
Is it because he knows a lot about watch construction?
OR is it because . . . . . . . . . . . . He is paid.
Why did many companies
ditch Tiger Woods as a
spokesperson
for their products?
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The use of emotional appeals to alter the
audience’s judgement.
This can be done through a variety of means;
however, the intention is to evoke strong
emotional responses from the audience.
Examples: Story telling, quotes, personal
references, rhetorical devices (metaphor,
similes).
Terry Fox was diagnosed with bone cancer at the
age of 18 and lost his right leg below the knee. He
made up his mind to run to raise money for cancer
research, and calling his challenge the Marathon of
Hope, he managed to run 26 miles a day for 143
days, from St. John's Newfoundland to Thunder Bay,
Ontario - with an artificial leg. His spirit captured
the country. He began on April 12, 1980 in St.
John's Newfoundland, and after 5,373 kilometres
(3,339 miles) his cancer reappeared, and he was
forced to stop near Thunder Bay. He passed away
on June 28, 1981 just a month before his 23rd
birthday, but his spirit has carried on.
Using reasoning or logic to construct an
argument.
Examples: Using math or statistics to persuade
the audience.
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“Our product is 50% more effective than our
competitors.”
“Contains 33% less fat.”
Can also involve the use of hypothetical
situations or anecdotes.
A friend of yours says he will never wear a
seatbelt again. He explains that an
acquaintance of his survived a car accident
because she wasn't wearing a seat belt. The
acquaintance flew through the windscreen,
landed on a grassy bank and suffered minor
injuries. Meanwhile the car burst into flames
and was destroyed.
Often, advertisements
use testimonials to sell
products. A testimonial
is a personal anecdote
in which a person
recounts his or her
success with a product.
Her story is intended to
make you believe that
your experience will be
similar.
IDENTIFY THE FOLLOWING AS EXAMPLES OF
- ETHOS
- PATHOS
- LOGOS
PATHOS
LOGOS
ETHOS
Advertisements that use
sex appeal and
misassociation also
employ to a lesser extent,
pathos.
PATHOS
LOGOS
LOGOS
&
PATHOS
LOGOS
LOGOS
PATHOS and ETHOS:
Look at the picture
that has been
chosen.
Let's say a friend of yours claims that a
particular brand of inexpensive shower
cleaner is really good. Your friend explains
that he simply sprayed it on the tiles, left it
for 10 minutes, and when he came back the
tiles were spotless - without him having
scrubbed or done anything else! This
anecdotal evidence is enough of a
recommendation for you. You buy some and
use it, thus testing the evidence for yourself.
ETHOS:
Is this a friend
you trust and would
believe?
LOGOS:
The
speaker is relaying a
personal experience.
ETHOS
PATHOS
ETHOS
&
PATHOS
ETHOS
PATHOS
ETHOS
LOGOS
PATHOS
ETHOS
LOGOS
PATHOS
ETHOS: Do you
believe Amnesty
International?
LOGOS
&
PATHOS
LOGOS
ETHOS
LOGOS
&
ETHOS
PATHOS
&
LOGOS
Ethos – “plain
folks,” everyday
people are
often viewed as
more reliable
than celebrities.
The story begins in
Indianapolis, Indiana,
where Jared S. Fogle who
was attending North
Central High School, was
massively overweight,
weighing in at 425 pounds
As a student of Indiana
University, Jared roomed
with a medic who
diagnosed him with
oedema.
He began a diet of a 6-inch turkey club sandwich for lunch, and a footlong veggie sub for dinner. The diet was a success; within three
months, Jared had shed almost 100 pounds, and the visible reduction in
his size spurred him to begin taking regular exercise. Rather than using
transport, Jared began to walk everywhere he could and choosing to
take the stairs wherever possible. By the end of the diet, he had lost
over 240 pounds.
ETHOS
LOGOS –
anecdotal
evidence
ETHOS: Does
Dion appear
believable.
PATHOS: This
ad preys on
the voter’s
FEAR of being
over taxed.
To a lesser extent, LOGOS: The ad
implies that one tax (the carbon tax)
is the beginning of a pattern.
Propaganda: Form of rhetoric where the
truth is distorted (exaggerated, or
understated),to sway the opinion of a
certain audience.
Generally people in a position of
authority will tend to use propaganda.
The GERMAN NAZIS during World War II are considered masters of
propaganda.
Gossip and rumours are often based on a “subjective”
and one sided understanding of a situation.
The targets of such bullying are often only understood
on a superficial level.
Sometimes the rumours and gossip people spread about
others serve no other purpose than to bully and to hurt.
In many ways, gossip and verbal bullying are not that
different from propaganda.
Nine teenagers charged over bullying
that led to girl's suicide
Irish girl killed herself after enduring
months of torment by classmates in
person and online.
AP – Two teenage girls have
been charged under Florida’s law
against cyberbullying after authorities
say they created a Facebook account in
a classmate’s name and posted a faked
nude photograph of her.
16-year-old Gary
Hansen, hanged
himself in Roblin,
Man., after
persistent bullying
at the local Goose
Lake High
School.
A 13-year-old girl
hanged herself after
she fell victim to a
cyber-bullying
campaign
orchestrated by the
mother of one of
her classmates,
who masqueraded
online as a "good
looking" teenage
boy.
“‘Sexting’ bullying cited in teen’s
suicide”
13-year-old Hope Witsell hanged
herself after topless photos circulated
Each person is different;
consequently, each individual
brings different values, interests
and goals into a relationship
It is, therefore, inevitable
that in any relationship,
conflict will arise.
MANY DIFFERENT
STRATEGIES ARE
AVAILABLE FOR
SOLVING
CONFLICT
1. AVOIDANCE: Run away, hide, sulk, do
nothing
2. DENIAL: Pretend there is nothing wrong, do
nothing.
3. AQUIESE: Give in.
4. DISCUSS: Talk and try to reach a solution
satisfactory to both parties.
The first three will retain a certain
level of chaos.
They often create and maintain
stress and typically leave one
person unhappy.
These conflicts typically resurface.
DISCUSSION:
If done well, a civilized
discussion inevitably leads to a better
understanding on the part of the individuals
in conflict and a compromise solution often
gives both parties a reason to be pleased.
The role your reputation plays in convincing your parents.
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How responsible have you been in the past?
How mature are you in your actions and choices?
Are you a responsible student?
Are you a good role model for siblings?
How have you handled freedom and responsibility
the past?
The emotion you bring when pleading your case.
“ Why can’t I,” she begged, tears running down her cheek.
“Please, please.”
“You’d let me if you really loved me.’
Do you have strong logical reasons that would lead to a decision in
your favour?
Anecdotal evidence indicating personal responsibility.
Facts or statistics.
Strategies that prove you can problem solve.
And, “everyone else is doing it” is not a good, logical argument.
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You will be assigned a role and a topic to
argue. Then you will need to write, and
deliver a short speech that employs
rhetorical devices to convince your audience.
Speeches will be around 150 – 200 words and
will last between 60 and 90 seconds.
Pathos: use humour, sarcasm, wit, fear,
sadness, guilt, anger, frustration, etc.
Ethos: sources of information, reason for
selection of topic, experience or expertise,
speech deliver (voice, eye contact, body
language).
Logos: hypothetical situation, metaphors,
facts\stats.

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