The Steroids Era

Report
The Steroids Era
“The use of anabolic steroids to enhance athletic
performance has become a major health concern in
professional baseball”

Major League Baseball
info
◦ $7 Billion dollar
industry
◦ Multimillion dollar
player contracts
◦ 1991- Steroids
banned
◦ 2003- League wide
PED testing started
Key Terms:
AAS or AS: Androgenic
Anabolic Steroids
PEDs: Performance Enhancing
Drugs
MLB: Major League Baseball

Social History
PEDs in Sport
Ancient times roots and herbs
were used
1849- Berthold experimented
on cockerels
1896- 1st death, Welsh cyclist
died after consuming
“trimethyl”
1929-39 extract was created
from bulls testicles, following
a synthesized compound
created by Ruzicka
1958 Ziegler ASmethandrostenolone“Dianabol

About Steroids
Types
Steroids are components of
cell membranes
Aide in digestions, and act as
hormones to control a wide
range of physiological
responses
Produced in gonads
testosterone is the primary
androgen hormone
Any of a subset of biological
molecules known as lipids. Different
types of steroids have different
chemical modifications.
Occurs in development of
male characteristics and
promotes protein synthesis
The Process
Steroids enter androgen
receptors located in various
cells and a messenger RNA is
created
This creates the ultimate
message to the DNA to create
certain proteins
Proteins sent out are
responsible for anabolic/
growth responses
Anabolic refers to the way cells convert into more
complex compounds, and androgenic produces
masculine characteristics.

Fred Hartgens report “The Effects of
Androgenic Anobolic Steroids in Athletes”
◦ Few meet scientific quality standards
◦ Difficult to follow real life abusers
The adverse, research, and effects

Risk factors associated
with use…
◦ Cardiovascular system
◦ Metabolic function
◦ Heart structure
◦ Liver function
◦ Psyche and behavior
◦ Reproduction
◦ Acquired diseases
“Adverse effects of
anabolic steroids:”
Reproductive
Male
Decreased reproductive hormones
Testicular atrophy
Oligospermia/azoospermia
Impotence
Prostatic hypertrophy
Prostatic carcinoma
Gynecomastia
Priapism
Female
Menstrual irregularities
Clitoral hypertrophy
Uterine atrophy
Breast atrophy
Teratogenicity
Liver
Hepatocellular damage
Cholestasis
Peliosis hepatis
Hepatoadenoma
Hepatocarcinoma
Cardiovascular and hematologic effects
Increased cholesterol
Decreased HDL cholesterol
Hypertension
Thrombosis
Musculoskeletal
Early epiphyseal closure in children
Increased rate of muscle strains/ruptures
Increased risk of musckulotendinous
Endocrine (other than reproductive)
Decreased glucose tolerance
Larynx
Deepening of the voice
Integument
Acne
Alopecia
Hirsutism
Male pattern baldness
Edema
Urinary
Elevated BUN, creatinine
Wilm’s tumor
Immunologic and Infectious effects
Decreased IgA levels
Hepatitis B or C; HIV infection
Psychologic
Mood swings
Aggressive behavior
Depression
Psychosis
Addiction
Withdrawal and Dependency Disorders
(Maravelias, C. 2005)

Sport Perspective
◦ Stacking
◦ Testing
◦ Injury
Player Profile
The story of “John Albertson”,
the psuedo name provided by
Carroll in “The Juice” order to
protect the players identity,
illustrates a story similar to
many ball players working
their way through the minor
league system trying to attain
MLB glory.
http://faculty.haas.berkeley.edu/rjmorgan/mba211/steroids%20a
nd%20major%20league%20baseball.pdf
Doping:
Prohibited substances:
the illegal use of
steroids, and other
performance
enhancing drugs
 ONDCP, U.S Olympic
Committee, WADA,
NCAA, NIDA
 Controlled substances
Act (CSA) in 1991

Stimulants

Narcotics

Anabolic agents

Diuretics

Peptide hormones

Laws, limitations and MLB policy

MLB Joint Drug
Prevention and
Treatment Program
◦
◦
◦
◦
Drugs of Abuse
Steroids
Stimulants
WADA certified
laboratory Laboratoire
de Controle du Dopage
(IRNS- Institut ArmandFrappier) in Montreal,
Quebec, Canada
Testing Policy
In-season testing
-5 days after reporting to ST
1 unannounced test on a
randomly selected date
Disciple for testing positive
1st offense 50, game
suspension
2nd offense, 100 game
suspension
3rd offense permanent
suspension from the
league

Advocates for steroid
use
◦ Norman Fost,
Professor of Pediatrics
and Bioethics at the
University of
Wisconsin
◦ http://www.youtube.c
om/watch?v=t8_7C9G
A-2w
6 Claims
-
Unfair advantage
-
Exaggerated side effects
-
Sports are more dangerous
-
-
Undermine fan interest
Undermine integrity of
records
Bad role models
Monitoring the future…
- At the HS and college level 12-15%
of athletes were found to have used
substances
- .05% 8th graders, 1.0% 10th
graders, 1.5% 12th graders use AS
one a year
Future of steroids:
Urinalysis
Abandonment of AAS
HGH (human growth
hormone)
EPO (Erythropoietin)
Current: http://espn.go.com/mlb/topics/_/page/thesteroids-era
References
Association Against Steroid Abuse: How anabolic steroids
work.http://www.steroidabuse.com/how-anabolic-steroidswork.html
Carroll, W. (2005). The juice the real story of baseball's drug
problem. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee.
Hartgens, F., "Androgenic-anabolic steroids and athletes," in
AccessScience, ©McGraw-Hill Companies, 2009,
http://www.accessscience.com
Hartgens, F., & Kuipers, H. (2004). Effects of androgenic-anabolic
steroids in athletes
Katz, J. Should we accept steroid use in sports? Retrieved from
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=18299098
Lenehan, P. (2003). Anabolic steroids and other performance enhancing drugs.
London: Taylor & Francis.
M. Todd Washington, "Steroid," in AccessScience, ©McGraw-Hill Companies, 2008,
http://www.accessscience.com
Major league baseball's joint drug prevention and treatment
program.http://mlbplayers.mlb.com/pa/pdf/jda.pdf
Maravelias, C., Dona, A., Stefanidou, M., & Spiliopoulou, C. (2005). Adverse effects
of anabolic steroids in athletes: A constant threat. Toxicology Letters, 158(3), 167175.
Office of national drug control policy- steroids. (2011). Retrieved 2/7, 2011, from
http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/drugfact/steroids/index.html
Smith, A. M., Stuart, M. J., Sorenson, M. C., & Griesemer, B. A. (2008). Drug use in
sports and exercise. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 83(2), 251-252.
Steroids (anabolic) drugs of abuse and related topics. (2011). Retrieved 2/7, 2011,
from http://www.drugabuse.gov/DrugPages/Steroids.html
The steroids era- MLB topics- ESPN. (2010). Retrieved
2/7http://espn.go.com/mlb/topics/_/page/the-steroids-era

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