### Three States of Matter

```Three States of Matter
Beta Science
Overview
In this powerpoint you will be introduced to three
states of matter and you will explore the similarities
and differences between these states.
Vanishing Act
Pour rubbing alcohol into a small plastic cup until the
alcohol just covers the bottom of the cup
Moisten the tip of a cotton swab by dipping it into the
alcohol in the cup.
Rub the cotton swab on the palm of your hand. Make
sure there are no cuts or abrasions on your hands.
“Vanishing Act” Analysis
1.) Explain what happened to the alcohol after you
rubbed the swab on your hand.
2.) Did you feel a sensation of hot or cold? If so, how
do you explain what you observed?
States of Matter
States of Matter: the physical forms in which a
substance can exist.
Ex. Water commonly exists in three states of matter:
solid (ice), liquid (water), and gas (steam)
Particles of Matter
Matter is made up of tiny particles called “atoms” and
“molecules.”
They are too small to see without a microscope
They are always in motion and bumping in to one
another.
Because they bump into each other, they are always
interacting.
The way they interact with one another determines the
state of matter they become.
Particles of a SOLID
Particles of a solid do not move fast enough to
overcome the strong attraction between them. So, they
are close together and vibrate in place.
Particles of a LIQUID
Particles of a liquid move fast enough to overcome
some of the attraction between them. The particles are
close together but can slide past one another.
Particles of a GAS
Particles of a gas move fast enough to overcome almost
all of the attraction between them. The particles are
far apart and move independently of one another.
Solids
Solid: the state of matter that has a definite shape and
volume.
Particles stay close together
The attraction between them is stronger than the
attraction between the particles of the same substance in
the liquid or gaseous state
The particles move but not fast enough to overcome
their attraction with each other.
Each particle vibrates in place so they actually become
locked in place by the particles around themselves
Two Kinds of Solids
Crystalline solids: have a very orderly, three
dimensional arrangement of particles.
Particles are in a repeating pattern of rows.
Ex. Iron, diamond, ice
Amorphous solids: made of particles that do not have a
special arrangement.
Each particle is in one place but not in any particular
pattern.
Ex. Glass, rubber, wax
Liquids
Liquid: the state of matter that has a definite volume
but takes the shape of its container.
Particles in liquids move fast enough to overcome some
of the attractions between them.
Particles slide past each other until they take the shape
of their container.
Although liquids change shape, they do not easily
change volume. Ex. 50ml of water will take up the same
space in a graduated cylinder as it would in a beaker.
Liquid Characteristics
Surface tension: a force that acts on the particles at the
surface of a liquid.
Causes some liquids to bead up
Different liquids have different surface tension
Viscosity: a liquid’s resistance to flow.
The stronger the attraction of particles, the more
viscous the liquid is.
Gases
Gas: is the state of matter that has no definite shape or
volume.
Particles move quickly so they can break away from one
another.
There is less attraction between particles of a gas than
between particles of the same substance in the solid or
liquid state.
The amount of empty space between gas particles can
change. Ex. Helium in a tank compared with helium in
a balloon.
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