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LIVING ENVIRONMENT 10/6
SWBAT Understand how protein
form dictates function
SWBAT understand the levels of
protein organization
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT MACROMOLECULE
CLASSES?
EXPLORE VOCABULARY
Macromolecule: Level above molecule in the hierarchy
Amino acid: monomer of proteins
Properly: the right way
Misfolded: Folded the wrong way
CJD: Human version of mad cow
Resistant: Isn’t affected by
PROTEINS: MACROMOLECULE THAT IS MACHINE
OF CELL
An organic molecule
 Made of Carbon and Hydrogen
Monomer: Amino acid
 Joined by peptide bonds
 A type of covalent bond
Polymer: Polypeptide (Pol-EE-pep-tide)
Speed up reactions, transportation, structure, respond to the
environment
Not stored in the body
PROTEINS IN THE HUMAN BODY
Made of 21 different amino acids
Our cells can only make some of them
We need to eat the rest
Coded for by DNA
PRIMARY STRUCTURE
The sequence of amino acids
A straight line
All proteins have primary structure
SECONDARY STRUCTURE: 3D SHAPE
Cause by hydrogen bonds
Types: a-helix and B-pleated sheet
TERTIARY STRUCTURE
The overall shape of a single protein
Caused by hydrophobicity (resist water),
ionic, disulfide bonds
QUATERNARY STRUCTURE
Several polypeptides bonded together
Not as common
Referred to as the overall protein
PROTEIN SHAPE
Extremely important to function
Globular: Looking like a blob
Usually for reactions
Structural: having a distinct shape
Forms hair, cell structure components
DENATURING A PROTEIN: DISRUPTION OF SHAPE
Caused by heat, acid, chemicals
Disrupts H-bonds, disulfide bonds, ionic bonds
Disrupts 2o, 3o, and 4o structure
Removing what caused denaturing causes protein to
gain shape
NUCLEIC ACIDS: MACROMOLECULES ESSENTIAL
TO LIFE
Includes DNA and RNA
Both have 1o, 2o, and 3o structure
Monomer: Nucleotide
Made of 5-Carbon sugar, phosphate, and nitrogenous
base
Includes ATP
Purpose: Contains genetic information

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