Sustainable Cities
G. Tyler Miller’s
Living in the Environment
14th Edition
Chapter 25
Key Concepts
 Distribution of urban and rural populations
 Factors determining urban development
 Resource and environmental problems in
urban areas
 Effects of transportation systems on urban
 Planning and controlling urban growth
 Making cities more sustainable and desirable
Urbanization and Urban Growth
Urban areas
Rural areas
Urban growth: natural increase and
Push and pull factors
Patterns of Urban Growth
 Increasing proportion of population
 Great increase in large cities (>1,000,000)
 Increasing rapidly in developing counties
 Urban growth slower in developed
 Poverty in urban areas increasing
Urbanization in the US
Migration to large central cities
Migration from cities to suburbs
Migration from north and east to
south and west
Migration from urban to rural areas
Spatial patterns of development
(see Fig. 25-4 p. 566)
Major Urban Regions in the US
Fig. 25-4 p. 566
Impacts of Urban Sprawl
Fig. 25-6 p. 567
Urban Resource and Environmental
 Air and water pollution; waste
 Reduction in vegetation
 Importation of food, energy, and materials
 Noise pollution
 Climate impacts: urban heat islands
 Impacts on surrounding rural areas
Urban Areas: Inputs and Outputs
Fig. 25-8 p. 569
Urban Poor in Developing
Squatter settlements
Illegal settlements
Poverty and unemployment
Transportation and Urban Development
Individual transit
Mass transit
(See Pro/Con p. 572-573)
Urban Land-Use Planning and
Land-use planning
Property taxes
Smart growth
Urban growth boundary
Cluster development (See Fig. 25-18 p. 579)
Fig. 25-17 p. 579
Cluster Housing
Fig. 25-18 p. 579
Solutions: Making Urban Areas
More Livable and Sustainable
New cities and towns
Ecocity (green city)
Trees and climate-specific landscaping
High energy efficiency

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