CIT Force Options Training

CIT Force Options
CIT Force Options
• This course is designed as an Advanced CIT Class and
suggested for those who have attended the 40 hour CIT
• This 8 hour course is designed to provide training to Law
Enforcement Professionals to safely use appropriate
Force Options when dealing with someone in Mental
• Force Options to include isolate and contain, avoid
engaging, de-escalation tactics, physical control tactics,
less lethal and deadly force.
• Class is designed as a mixture of classroom and hands-on
CIT Force Options- Objectives
• Learn what types of Mental Illness situations
are most dangerous to Law Enforcement
• Develop Communication and De-escalation
Tactics to help diffuse Mental Crisis situations.
• Develop Force Options and Restraint Tactics to
safely respond to those in Mental Crisis
• Develop Tactics to safely respond to Suicidal,
Suicide by Cop or Assassination/Ambush
Training Equipment
• King County CIT Program uses Mock Force Options
Equipment during all Mock Scenes –Why?
• With out Mock Weapons you’ll never know what
Officers would really do on the street
• Officers know it’s VERBAL ONLY during the Mock
Scenes without them
• Was proper Patrol Tactics used during scenarios
Examples: Slowing Down, Contact/Cover
• Can Officers combine Verbal Tactics with Physical
• Partners can draw concealed non-lethal items
(cellphone) making them decide on Force Option
• Able to correct students during training if Force
Option is not appropriate
Training Equipment
SIRT Training Pistol
Laser Based Training Pistol
Can tell when finger is on trigger
Can tell when trigger is pulled and if target is hit
No need for safety equipment so you can see emotions,
expressions and body language
Training Equipment
Training X-26 Taser – Inert Laser Pointer
Can tell when trigger been pulled
Can tell how long the trigger is pulled
Can tell where it’s pointed
L.A.S.R.: Laser Activated Shot
Reporter – Software $99
• Allows you to time students in specific drills
• Allows you to show where they hit on target
• Can diagnose them after they’ve shot
• Allows you to train in realistic positions
• Seated
• Ground
• Vehicle
• While moving
• One handed while moving
The FBI study showed ambush situations
were the Biggest Category of circumstance
behind 543 officers feloniously killed
between 2002 to 2011: 23.2%
What is your objective for using force?
• Defensive Force - Subject reasonably perceived
as an immediate threat of harm
• Capture Force - Subject fleeing from (serious
physical harm) crime and officer Is justified in
tackling subject on the current surface
• Restraint Force - Force to facilitate restraint
(including turtling)
• Compliance Force - Force to gain volitional
compliance to commands
• Distraction Force – To facilitate restraint of
cognitively impaired person
AXIS I and AXIS II Changing with DSM-5
40 hour CIT Class General covers AXIS –I
AXIS I – Psychiatric Disorder – Diagnosis
Social Phobias
Can have more than one disorder
Medication can help
Force Options 8 hour Primarily AXIS II
AXIS II – Personality Disorder and DD
Examples: DD Autism
Borderline (Axis I in DSM-5)
Medication doesn’t generally help !
Lakewood Statistics
• Clemmon’s Glock
• Round #1
• Round #2
• Glock Jams/Misfired
Back of Head
• Clemmon’s Revolver probably had both out
• Round #1
• Greg’s Glock
• Round #1
• Clemmon’s Revolver
• Rounds # 2-6 Missed
Hit interior walls
• Greg’s Taser in it’s holster is torn from Greg’s belt
• Clemmons disarms Greg of his Glock
• Round #2
Lakewood Statistics
• Law Enforcement’s Hit Rate
• 100%
1 for 1
• All wore Body Armor
• Clemmon’s Hit Rate
• 55%
5 out of 9
• No Body Armor
• Why did he win!
You could not hire hit man to try and to assassinate
four armed officers
Clemmons hard core Psychopath with delusions
First gun grab attempt 16 yoa in court
Survival = Getting Head Out of Way
• Deputy Steve Cox was last King County Deputy killed by gun
fire. Homicide suspect drew from concealment and shot
Steve in the head – Shot through his finger as he tried to
deflect or grab the gun – Hit Steve in the Face, killing him.
• Video
1-3% of the population
Commit a disproportionate amount of
serious and violent crime
40% of Prison Population
Overwhelming Force and Respect
Cryptic Consequences
Law Enforcement Training Scars
• Suspect’s Primary Target Head and Neck Area
• Law Enforcement Training Scars
• FBI Study – Handgun rounds to torso
WILL NOT reliably incapacitate subject
• Officers are taught to shoot at center mass
• Learn to lock in shooting stance (Not moving
head) Goes against natural instinct to move
Law Enforcement Training Scars
• No Environmental Shooting Positions
• Seated – in Vehicle, Ground, Under Table or Low-Light
• At close ranges (less than 3 feet) with and without
close non- shoot target(s)
Little movement and all shooting at same
Decision to shoot had been made for them in most
cases on range
Little or NO Pre-Attack (Physical or Firearm) training
Non Realistic CQB Shooting Position – Rock and Lock
• Most officers are disarmed while drawing
Most are only given limited “RBT”-Reality Based
Training Scenarios – 2-3 scenes a year
Force Options Covered
Seated 360 Degree Shooting in Classroom
Flinch Draw – Moving head off line while drawing
Taser to Handgun Transition – Handgun to Taser
G-WRAPS Weapon Retention
Stop Kick
Back Fall to Head Avoidance on ground
Arm Drag Entry – Hand Fighting
WRAPS – Takedown Position to Control Position
Rear Weapon Retention
Foot Sweep and Foot Trap Takedown
Standing Control Cuffing
Team Tactics – Team Control and Restraining
Sam’s 4 Plays
(1) Introduce Yourself ….Hi, I’m Sgt Gulla
(2) Obtain the Person’s Name … “What’s your name ?
(3) Expressing to the person what you are seeing .
What do you see ?
Use the I word – “I can see you’re angry”
(4) Summarize … to be an “active listener”
you should “summarize”
Communicating with the person in crisis
Summarize the information that you have
With permission from:
Major Sam Cochran, Retired
University of Memphis
[email protected]
Police Response
Avoid Engaging
When possible, If the individual presents no
immediate danger to himself, herself, or others,
avoid engaging the person
Isolate and Contain
Do not invade personal space
Do not touch without permission or stand too close
Speak slowly and quietly using simple concrete
*Be prepared if above does not work and
ready to move to other options
Caution When Using Taser
in Deadly Force Situation
Video of 30 Second Taser Hit
Sheboygan Incident Video
Violence and Mental Illness/Substance Abuse
• Rankings of Violence
• Alcohol
• Drugs
• Anti-Social Personality
• Schizophrenia
• Depression
When Mental Illness is combined with Substance Abuse,
it increases the likely hood of violence by 500%
Emotions to Violence
• Fear – *One of greatest danger
to Police - On both sides
• Anger
• Honor/Respect
• Revenge
• Control
• Shame
• Paranoid
Predictor’s of Violence
Best predictor of
is Past History of
Suicide by COP
• Video of SBC man shooting gun
Suicide by Cop
Demographic and Historical Indicators
Reported suicidal communications (87%)
On psychiatric medications (42%)
Mental health diagnosis (62%)
Under psychological care (30%)
Past suicidal ideation (86%)
Prior suicide attempt (39%)
Mood disorder (48%) (of those with known or suspected issues)
Incident Indicators

Shoots at police (48%) those who had guns
Behavioral threats to harm others (98%)
Harms civilians (49%)
Verbal threats to harm others (70%)
Under influence of alcohol (24%)
Psychotic (21%)
Suicidal communication during the incident (61%) (of these, 79%
mention SBC specifically)
Suicide by Cop
Police Indicators
Less lethal force initially deployed (39%)
More rounds fired if deadly force used
This study continues a long line of empirical evidence that
sets straight the widely held, but false belief, that there is a
negative correlation between suicidal risk and homicidal
risk. In fact, the opposite appears to be true: a suicidal
individual poses a greater risk of homicide or at least
violence toward others, than a non-suicidal individual.
Law enforcement apprehension of an armed, suicidal
individual requires a high degree of vigilance for the
safety of all civilians and officers at the scene of the
Responding to Threats of Suicide
• To increase Officer Safety and gain Intel:
• #1 Call subject via phone prior to contact
• Connect prior to Directing – Make Connection
• Method of Suicide – Weapons
• What type ? Handgun vs Scoped Rifle
• Military Veteran ? Training and Weapons
• Listen to demeanor and emotions
• Others in house/vehicle with them
• Threats of Suicide allows you to “Ping”
cellphones to find their location
Threat of Suicide by COP
• Contact with Suicidal Person with Weapon
• Isolate and Contain if possible – Specialty Units
• SBC Subject is likely going to push the event to make police
take action – BE PREPARED !
• Warnings that Lethal Force maybe used or Less Lethal if
appropriate and Only if Time permits
• Remember subject doesn’t have to point a weapon at you
or others to perceived as an immediate threat of harm
• Cover and Backup
• One Officer talks and Cover Officer is Prepared to shoot
– 48% fire at officers
Not Hollywood – One Shot Myth – Reactionary Gap
• Consider Rifle vs Handgun and Shot Placement
Allen v Muskogee:
Many cases emphasize the need for enhanced decision
making skills with respect to use of force decisions.
Allen v. Muskogee[viii] serves as one example. In Allen,
officers responded to a call of a suicidal man. Upon their
arrival at the scene they observed Mr. Allen, seated alone, in
his vehicle with a gun.
Within 90 seconds of their arrival, the officers rushed the
car in an attempt to disarm Mr. Allen,
rather than isolating and negotiating with him. When the
officers rushed the car, Allen made a sudden movement
toward the officers leading the officers to believe they were
in danger of being shot.
The officers opened fire and killed Allen.
Early Warning Signs
• The most Violent Job in Washington state
isn't being a police officer or a security
guard. It's working as a nurse's aide
• Emergency Room Staff and Nurses Aides
• Highest number of Labor and Industry
Claims (313) is Western State Hospital
King County CIT Program
King County is largest County in Washington State
Funded by MIDD 1 cent of 1 % Sales Tax – Mental Illness and Drug
King County CIT Training Started at the end of 2010
40 hour CIT Basic
Average 12 classes per year
8 hour CIT In-Service
Average 12 classes per year
8 hour CIT Youth
Average 2 classes per year
8 hour CIT Force Options Average 4 classes per year
Over 40 King County Law Enforcement Agencies attend training
Funding pays First Responders (Police) $55 per hour for backfill or
Less than 18% apply for backfill or overtime
Corrections, Communication Specialist, Fire, MHPs and Court
Marshals also qualify to attend if space is avaliable
Crisis Solution Center
Mobile Crisis Team
MCT Responses 24/7 to LE Request
Crisis Diversion Facility 16 beds LE drop off alternative to Jail/ER
Crisis Diversion Interim Services 23 beds referred from CDF
Regional Mental Health Court
Veterans Court
Use of Force Legal Update
Mike Brave UOF Video
Use Of Force Myths
• Force Science Video
My Contact Information
• Sgt Don Gulla – King Co CIT Coordinator
• King County Sheriff’s Office
• Current working at Washington State
Criminal Justice Training Center
• Email [email protected]
• Phone 206-423-1270
• Website

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