How are they different?

Report
Compare and Contrast
1. Why do we compare and contrast?
2. What are the three main types of
compare and contrast paragraphs?
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
Compare and Contrast
 Comparing and contrasting are ways of looking at
objects and thinking about how they are alike and
different.
 For instance, all of these items are alike because
they are kinds of food, but there are many ways
that they are different. For instance, they belong to
different food groups. Some must be cooked
before eating, and some can be eaten raw.
 When you write compare and contrast, you will
pay attention to these kinds of details.
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
There are two main reasons that people
use comparison and contrast:
1. To Explain--You might compare and contrast
kinds of food, for instance, to help someone
understand which food need to be refrigerated and
which can be stored in a cabinet or in a bowl on
the counter.
2. To Evaluate--You might compare and contrast
kinds of food to show why one kind of food or
brand of food is better than another. For example,
apples are a better snack than butter.
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
Compare - Look for Similarities
When you choose items to compare and
contrast, make sure that you choose items
that have similarities.
 You have to choose things that will make sense for
comparison and contrast. For instance, it wouldn't
make sense to compare a truck with crayons or
crayons with a birdhouse.
 Be sure to compare things that belong together.
Compare crayons to pencils or pens, or compare
trucks and cars.
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
Compare - Look for Similarities
When you compare items, you look for their
similarities--the things that make them the
same.
For example:
 Apples and oranges are both fruit.
 They're both foods.
 Both are made into juice.
 Both grow on trees.
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
Contrast – Look at Differences
When you contrast items, you look at their
differences.
For example:
 Apples are red. Oranges are orange.
 The fruits have different textures.
 Oranges need a warmer place to grow,
like Florida. Apples can grow in cooler
states, like Washington.
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
Comparing Every Day
 You probably use comparison all the time.
Maybe you want to buy some candy, so you go
to the store and look at all of the candy that is
available.
 You can't buy all the candy, so you have to
narrow down your choices.
 You compare and contrast the different kinds of
candy so that you can make your decision.
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
Comparing Every Day
You can compare the kinds of candy by
looking at the things that makes the candy
alike.
 All of the candy is sweet.
 All of the candy is fattening.
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
Comparing Every Day
You also contrast the candies to show how they
are different.
 Some of the candy is chocolate. Some is hard
candy.
 Some pieces of the candy have a filling, like
caramel or jelly. Some do not.
 Some of the candy can be broken into smaller
pieces while the others are harder to divide if
you want to share.
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
Graphic Organizers
book
movie
2
1
 Graphic organizers are useful tools for
gathering details about the items that you
are comparing and contrasting.
 Venn Diagrams help you think about where
alike
the various characteristics of the items
being compared and contrasted fit.
different
 The Compare and Contrast Chart is more
like a listing tool, where you can
brainstorm a list of ways that the items are
alike and different.
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
How are they alike?
•sweet
•fattening
How are they different?
Type of
candy
Chocolate
bars
Jelly beans
Candy cane
Type of
filling
chocolate
jelly
peppermint
Share or not?
yes
yes
no
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
Compare and Contrast in Writing
 Compare and contrast is used in writing to
organize an individual paragraph as well as to
organize entire papers.
 For instance, you might write a paper that
compares a movie and a book about the same
topic. In your paper you can compare and
contrast the movie version with the book
version.
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
Ready to Write?
There are four main things to pay attention to as you write
a compare and contrast paper:
 Supporting Details
 Balance
 Organization
 Transitions
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
1. Supporting Details
 Set your purpose for writing.
 To explain – help the reader understand how the items
are the same and different
 To evaluate – persuade the reader that one is better
than the other
 Gather an equal amount of details and examples for each
item and place these on a graphic organizer.
 Only include information that relates to
what is being compared.
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
2. Balance your Writing
 Make sure give equal time to each item
that you are comparing and contrasting.
book
movie
 If you cover character, setting, and
historical accuracy for the book, for
instance, you need to be sure that you
cover the same elements for the movie.
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
3. Organization
There are three ways to
organize comparison and
contrast papers:
 Whole-to-Whole
 Similarities-to-Differences
 Point-by-Point
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
Whole-to-Whole
 Use a separate section or paragraph for each
item you're discussing.
Introduction
 To compare and contrast a book and a movie,
Item #1
Item #2
Conclusion
the section for Item #1 would include
everything about the book and the section
for Item #2 would cover everything about
the movie.
 The points in each of the sections should be
the same and they should be explained in the
same order (for instance, you might discuss
character, setting, and plot for both a book
and movie, and in that order for both).
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
Compare and Contrast 2 Characters:
Item 1: Ken
Item 2: Susan
How are they alike?
•Both showed interest in magic tricks
•Both were with friends
How are they different?
•did a magic trick using
straws
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
•showed how her dog
could subtract
Compare & Contrast 2 Characters:
INTRO: Ken and Susan have similar interests, but they use different techniques.
ITEM #1: Ken did a magic trick by cleverly using straws to pick up a bottle.
ITEM #2: Susan tricked her friend to believe her dog can do arithmetic.
CONCLUSION: Both Ken and Susan like tricks and magic, but Ken used clever
tools and Susan used clever words.
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
Now you try it…
Introduction
Item #1
Item #2
Conclusion
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
Sample C/C Chart:
Item 1: Pam
Item 2: Jordan
How are they alike?
•Both characters lost their homes
•Both characters need a true friend
How are they different?
•Her home caught on fire
•They lost everything
•Kelsee said she would
help Pam
•Kelsee is a true friend
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
•Her dad lost his job
•They had to move to a
smaller home
•Her old friends were not
true friends
•She needed a true friend
Sample Compare & Contrast:
Pam and Jordan have similar problems but their stories end
differently.
Pam’s family lost their home to a fire, so Pam’s neighbor,
Kelsee, promised to help her.
Jordan’s family had to move to a smaller home when Dad lost
his job. Jordan’s friends all abandoned her.
Pam and Jordan are similar because they both lost their homes
and really need a true friend. They have different challenges
because Pam has a true friend, but Jordan does not.
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
Similarities-to-Differences
 In this structure, you use a separate section or
Introduction
Similarities
paragraph for similarities and differences. You
would explain all the similarities about the
items being compared and then explain all the
differences.
 For instance, you might explain that the
Differences
characters and plot were similar in both the
book and movie in the one section.
 In the next section, you could explain that the
Conclusion
settings were different. The book took place
during the summer while the movie took place
during the winter.
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
Compare and Contrast 2 jobs:
Item 1: newspaper reporter
Item 2: newspaper photographer
How are they alike?
•go out to gather news
•come back to the news office to work
How are they different?
•Talks to people
•Takes notes
•Writes the story
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
•Takes many pictures
•Develops pictures
•15 minutes
•Chooses 1-2 pictures
Compare & Contrast 2 Jobs:
Intro
The newspaper reporter and the newspaper photographer work
for the same goal but have different responsibilities.
Similar
The reporter and the photographer both gather important parts of the story
and then come back to the newspaper office to work on the news story.
Different
The reporter talks to people to get information. He uses the notes gathered
to write the newspaper story. In contrast, the photographer takes many
pictures of one event. He chooses one or two pictures for the newspaper. The
photographer’s pictures are developed in about 15 minutes, but it is hard to
tell how long the reporter will need to write.
Conclusion The newspaper reporter and the photographer have similar jobs, but there are
some differences.
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
Now you try it…
Introduction
Similarities
Differences
Conclusion
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
Compare and Contrast 2 themes:
Item 1: King Midas
Item 2: lazy man in Denmark
How are they alike?
•Both characters are greedy
•Both learned that magic did not make them happy
How are they different?
•wants more gold
•is granted a wish
•everything turns to gold
•daughter turns to gold
•wants his daughter back
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
•father dies
•leaves a magic carpet
•flies to distant land
•steals Sultans jewels
•flies back home
•jewels fall into sea
Point by Point
Introduction
Point 1
Point 2
Conclusion
Point-by-Point Strategy
 In this structure, you explain one point of
comparison before moving to the next point.
 For instance, you would write about the
characters in the book and movie for Point 1;
then you would write about the setting in the
book and movie in Point 2. Point-by-Point
comparison and contrast uses a separate section
or paragraph for each point.
 For consistency, begin with the same item in
each section of your point-by-point paper. For
instance, for each point that you discuss,
explain the information about the book first
and then about the movie.
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
Compare and Contrast 2 themes:
Problem?
Character
Item 1: The Boy Who Cried Wolf
Item 2: Zach and Egyptian Relic
Shepherd
•Tricks people
Zach
•takes in a relic for history project
•tells his class the relic is real
Setting
history class in present times
Genre
fable
realistic fiction
Theme
lied
No one will trust you if you lie.
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
Compare and Contrast 2 themes:
Item 1: The Boy Who Cried Wolf
Item 2: Zach and Egyptian Relic
Character
Shepherd
•says a wolf is attacking sheep
•tries to trick townspeople
Zach
•takes in a relic for history project
•tells his class the relic is real
Setting
countryside
history class in present times
Genre
fable
realistic fiction
Theme
People may stop helping you if
you lie.
No one will trust you if you lie.
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
Compare & Contrast 2 Themes:
Intro
These stories may not seem related, but the theme is quite
similar.
Point 1
The characters in these two passages have different responsibilities,
but they are both deceitful. The shepherd lies to the townspeople,
and Zach tells the class that the relic is real.
Point 2
The setting and genre is different in these stories. The Boy Who
Cried Wolf is an old fable set in the countryside, while the story of
Zach and the Egyptian Relic could take place in modern days.
Point 3
Both characters find there is a consequence for their lying. The
shepherd must deal with the angry townspeople, and Zach realizes no
one will trust him again when they find out about his lie.
Conclusion Even though the setting is very different in these two passages, both
characters learn that lying will eventually come back and get you.
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
Now you try it…
Introduction
Point 1
Point 2
Conclusion
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
Sample Compare and Contrast 2 themes:
Item 1: Sam’s Report
Item 2: Ride the Red Cycle
Characters
Sam - nervous
Mrs. Owens - reassuring
Jerome - has a disability, feels
embarrassed and trapped
Tilly – sister, tries to help
Point of View
1st person
3rd person
Conflict
Character vs. self
•Has to speak in front of class
Character vs. self
•Wants to speak up and say what
he wants on his own
Theme
When you try something you
are afraid to do, it might turn
out to be easier than you
expected.
If you really want to do something,
and keep trying, you will be able
to do it!
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
4. Transition Words
 In compare and contrast writing,
transition words tell a reader that the
writer is changing from talking about one
item to the other.
 Transitional words and phrases help make
a paper smoother and more coherent by
showing the reader the connections
between the ideas that are being
presented.
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
Transition Words for Comparing
also
as
as well as
both
in the same
manner
in the same way
like
likewise
most important
same
similar
similarly
the same as
too
When you're comparing items, using a
transition from this list will signal to readers
that you're changing from one item to the
next and it will also tell the reader that the
two items are similar.
Here are some examples:
 The characters in the movie were very
similar to the characters in the book.
 Both the characters in the movie and in the
book were interested in detective work.
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
Transition Words for Contrast
although
but
differ
even though
however
in contrast
instead
nevertheless
on the contrary
on the other hand
unless
unlike
while
yet
On the other hand, using one of the transitions
from this list of words will signal readers that
the two items you're discussing are different.
Here are some examples:
 The setting in the book was summer while
the setting in the movie was winter.
 The events in the book took place during
several afternoons, although the events in the
movie took place during the evening.
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association
Lesson Essential Questions:
1. Why do we compare and contrast?
2. What are the three main types of compare and contrast
paragraphs?
Adapted from ReadWriteThink.org International Reading Association

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