Fumigating and Maintenance to Grain Bins

Report
Stored Grain Insect Management
Doug Johnson
Extension Entomologist
General Management
Recommendations
•
•
•
•
•
•
Clean the bins thoroughly!
Fumigate beneath perforated floors
Treat the interior and exterior of bins
Control Moisture
Control Temperature
Monitor Insect Activity
Secondary Feeders
Flour Beetles
Rusty Grain Beetle
Indian Meal Moth
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_meal_moth
Lesser Grain Borer
in Wheat
Primary Feeder
Rice Weevil
Adult
Primary
Feeder
Rice Weevil Larva
Number of granary weevils
Number of granary weevils in 80o F wheat at
selected intervals starting with 30 insects
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
0
62
82
91
105
Days
In a non-limiting environment insect populations
increase at an INCREASING rate!
119
178
Number of Insects
Growth of insects with all factors
equal except starting numbers.
2000
1500
1
10
100
1000
500
0
1
2
3
4
5
Time
The starting population size makes a difference!
Number of offspring 5 months after 50 pairs of
rice weevils placed in wheat
Number of Insects
16000
14000
Temperature AND Moisture
%
Moisture
9%
10%
11%
12%
13%
14%
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
60
70
80
Temperature oF
90
Number of offspring 5 months after 50 pairs of
rice weevils placed in wheat
Number of Insects
16000
%
Moisture
Temperature
14000
9%
10%
11%
12%
13%
14%
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
60
70
80
Temperature oF
90
Number of offspring 5 months after 50 pairs of
rice weevils placed in wheat
Number of Insects
16000
%
Moisture
Moisture
14000
9%
10%
11%
12%
13%
14%
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
60
70
80
Temperature oF
90
Aeration Controllers
Pre-Filling Pesticides
• Application under the perforated floor
– Fumigation
• Application to the interior walls
– Liquid
– Dust
• Application to the exterior walls
Number of Insects
Growth of insects with all factors
equal except starting numbers.
2000
1500
1
10
100
1000
500
0
1
2
3
4
5
Time
The starting population size makes a difference!
Beetles per Day
Number of Flour Beetles per Day
Captured in Probe Traps in Wheat in
Caldwell Co. KY 2002
250
200
150
100
50
0
Non-Treated
Treated
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19
Sample Week
During Filling
• Fumigation during filling
– Concentration in the bin?
– No residual control – are there insects present?
Liquid application to the grain stream
-Are there insects present?
-Insecticides break down rapidly in a hot bin!
Admixture to bulk Grain
Empty
Bin
Actellic
Top
Dress
Field
Corn
Pop
Corn
Grain
Sorg.










Biobit
(& others)
Soy

Wheat
Barley
Oats
Rye








Centynal

Diacon-D










Insecto





















Sensat
Storcide II

Tempo

1B.t.
Empty Bin Only, May NOT be applied to grain
products (Biobit etc.) will control only caterpillars not beetles and is applied to the top 4”
of Grain.
2Tempo (cyfluthrin) may not be applied to grain.
Insecticides
Actellic (Pirimiphos-methyl)
(1B)
Biobit / Dipel others (Bacillus thuringensis) (11A) Centynal
(deltamethrin)
(3A)
Diacon-D (S-Methoprene)
(7A)
Insecto (silicon dioxide)
Sensat/Contain (Spinosad)
(5)
Storecide II (deltamethrin (3A)+
chlorprifos-methyl (1B) )
Tempo (cyfluthrin)
(3A)
Sanitation, Temperature, Moisture
Even if you decide to use insecticides….
these three cultural controls
will make your insecticides more effective.
Monitoring
General Recommendations
•
•
•
•
•
•
Clean the bins thoroughly!
Fumigate beneath perforated floors
Treat the interior and exterior of bins
Control Moisture
Control Temperature
Monitor Insect Activity
Sanitation, Sanitation, Sanitation
Temperature, Temperature, Temperature
Moisture, Moisture, Moisture
Aeration, Aeration, Aeration
How many times do I need so say it?
If you only remember one
thing!
Store Clean Dry Grain
In
Clean Dry Bins
Minimum Exposure Periods for PHOSTOXIN
Temperature
Pellets
Tablets
Below 40
degrees F
Do Not
Fumigate
Do Not
Fumigate
40 - 53
degrees F
8 days
10 days
54 - 59
degrees F
4 days
5 days
60 - 68
degrees F
3 days
4 days
Above 68
degrees F
2 days
3 days
Notification Requirements
•
Authorities and On-Site Workers:
As required by local regulations, notify the appropriate local officials (fire department, police department, etc.) of the impending fumigation. Provide to the officials a
MSDS and complete label for the product and any other technical information deemed
useful. Offer to review this information with the local official(s).
• Incidents Involving These Products:
Registrants must be informed of any incident involving the use of this product. Please
call 1-800-308-4856 or DEGESCH AMERICA, INC. (540) 234-9281/
1-800-330-2525 so the incident can be reported to Federal and State Authorities.
• Theft of Products:
Immediately report to the local police department theft of metal phosphide
fumigants.
RESPIRATORY PROTECTION
Gas Concentration
Respiratory Protection
Less than 0.3 ppm
None required
0.3 - 15 ppm (or escape
from levels up to 1,500
PPM)
NIOSH/MSHA approved full
face gas mask - hydrogen
phosphide canister
combination.
More than 15 ppm
NIOSH/MSHA approved selfcontained breathing
apparatus (SCBA)
DRAEGER ACCURO PUMP
Fumigation Management Plan
• Sec. 21 (of label) REQUIRED WRITTEN
FUMIGATION MANAGEMENT PLAN (FMP).
• A FMP must be written PRIOR to all
applications.
• A FMP must be devised to cover application,
exposure period, aeration and disposal of the
fumigant,…
Equipment Needed
•
Man-in-Bin sign placed near the control panel or auger power control.
•
2- or 3-inch tape, spray adhesive, and adhesive for polyethylene sheets.
•
Applicator’s manual and current label.
•
•
Sufficient fumigant for the volume of the bin.
Tape measure to calculate volume of grain to be treated.
•
2- to 6-mils polyethylene film large enough to cover the grain surface. Attach a rope to the
polyethylene film for easy removal after fumigation.
•
Cotton gloves for handling phosphine-type fumigant — do not handle tablets with bare hands or
wet gloves.
•
All fumigations should be done by at least two people, each equipped with a full set of safety
equipment, including chemical-resistant gloves, protective clothing, etc.
•
If entrance into the structure is required for fumigating the grain, two licensed people MUST be
present.
Equipment Needed
•
Proper respiratory protection for all personnel involved in the fumigation. Check the fumigant
label for specific requirements.
•
Probes for applying aluminum phosphide tablets.
•
Safety rope to attach to anyone climbing into a bin, and long enough to extend through the
bin access point and strong enough so rescue personnel can drag a victim to the exit if
necessary.
•
Shovels to level grain mass prior to treatment.
•
Grain thermometer to measure grain temperature prior to treatment at locations throughout
the grain mass.
•
Fumigation placards.
•
A lock to keep unauthorized personnel out of the building. Be sure everyone is out before
attaching the lock.
•
Monitoring equipment to check gas concentration available from the vendors listed at the
end of this guide.
Successful Fumigation Requires hold the gas in a three dimensional structure
Similar to filling a balloon with air.
Temperature X Concentration X Time
Height
Length
Width
APPLICATOR’S MANUAL FOR
PHOSTOXIN® TABLETS AND PELLETS
Type of Fumigation
1. Vertical Storages (such as
silos, concrete bins, steel
bins, etc.)
2. Farm Bins (Butler Type)
Dosage Range
Pellets
Tablets
200-900/1000 bu.
40-180/1000 bu.
150-700/1000 cu.ft. 30-140/1000 cu.ft.
450-900/1000 bu.
350-725/1000 cu.ft.
90-180/1000 bu.
70-145/1000 cu.ft.
Cubic feet to be Fumigated
Above the
grain mass
Below the
perforated floor
SEALING THE BIN
1.) Seal all openings in the bin walls
2.) Cover the grain surface with 4mil plastic, secured at the edges --OR--
3.) Calculate rate for the entire bin, including the unfilled roof cone.
What are we going to do with 300,000 bu. bins?
39’
Phosphine gas penetrates about 25’
39’
Sam McNeil, University of Kentucky
PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
Wear dry gloves of cotton or other breathable material if contact with Phostoxin® tablets,
pellets or dust is likely. Wear a loose fitting long sleeve shirt, long pants, shoes and socks.
After fumigation activities, remove all protective clothing, aerate in a well ventilated area
then wash thoroughly, separately, before re-use.
If Phostoxin® tablets or pellets become trapped inside clothing, remove clothing, wash
hands and exposed skin thoroughly, shower and change into clean clothing.
If application of fumigant is performed from within the structure to be fumigated,
approved respiratory protection against phosphine must be worn during fumigation, by
all personnel in the structure (see below).
Distributing the Fumigant
Calculate the number of tablets or pellets needed,
Deposit them evenly by probing into the grain surface,
Probe fumigant in on uniform grid with each probe
about four or five feet apart
Cover the grain surface with the plastic
Attach a line to the plastic to allow removal from
outside
Depart the bin
Seal the bin (lock)
The Fumigation Is Not Complete Until
The Bin is Clear of Gas!!!
•
•
•
•
Unseal the bin
Open vents, remove plastic cover etc.
Operate fans to evacuate residual gas
REMEMBER – you must either have gas
detection equipment or assume that there is
gas remaining in the bin!
Important Points to Consider
• Fumigants are by far the most toxic products
you will ever use.
• Fumigations should be preformed by Trained
Licensed applicators.
• Never fewer than two people.
• Phostoxin will explode into fire with direct
contact with water.
Common Ideas That Will Not Work
• Spraying anything through the fan.
• Throwing hands full of pellets across the
surface of the grain.
• Expecting the gas to move more than 30 ft.
without circulation.
Problem Situation:
• Late winter early spring
– Temperature of grain, usually too low
• Pellets/tablets will not “gas off quickly” enough
– Will not reach a control concentration
– Pellets/tablets will remain in the grain unspent, until warm
enough, so the grain will contain detectable / dangerous
amounts of phosphine
Problem Situation:
Grain remains in a bin that is needed for new
crop.
• Sell the grain if anyone will take it
• Feed the grain to livestock
• Fumigate the grain before adding new grain to
the bin.
• DO NOT store new grain with old grain!
What are we going to do with 300,000 bu. bins?
39’
Phosphine gas penetrates about 25’
39’
Sam McNeil, University of Kentucky

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