Civilization Case Study: Ur in Sumer

Report
Humans Try to Control Nature
Chapter 1
section 2
Warm-Up Vocab ( Use glossary or pgs.
18-23)
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Surplus
Division of Labor
Traditional economy
Artisan
Early Advances in Art and Technology
• Nomads- people who
move from place to
place
• Hunter-gathers- hunted
animals and collected
plant foods
– Made spears
– Digging sticks
– Stone, bone, wood for
tools
Beginnings of Agriculture
• Neolithic revolution-the
discovery of agriculture
– Shift from food gathering
to food production
• Rising worldwide
temperatures
• Rich supply of grain
• farming
• Steady source of food
Beginnings of Agriculture
• Slash-and-burn farmingcut down trees and
burn them to clear
fields
– Ashes fertilize the fields
– Plant crops for one or
two years
– Move to different field
– Trees and grass grow
repeat
Domestication of Animals
• Domestication- taming
of animals
– Horses, dogs, goats, pigs
• Use to drive animals off
a ravine
• Jarmo- birthplace of
agriculture
– Zagros mountains “Iraq”
– Wheat, barley, goats,
pigs, sheep, horses
Villages Grow and Prosper
• Africa
– Nile river
– Grow wheat, barley
• China
– Huang River
– Millet, wild rice
• Mexico and Central
America
– Corn, beans squash
Catal Huyuk
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8000 years ago
5,000 to 6,000 people
1000 dwellings
Raised sheep and cattle
Highly skilled workers
Flood, fire, drought,
disease could destroy a
village
Civilization Case Study: Ur in
Sumer
Chapter 1
Section 3
Key Terms
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Civilization
Specialization
Artisan
Institution
Scribe
Cuneiform
Bronze Age
Barter
Ziggurat
Villages Grow into Cities
• Economic changes
– Irrigation systems for
more crops
– Food surplus
– Develop other skills
– Wheel and sail invented
– Trade developed
Division of Labor
What do you think Division of Labor mean?
How Cities Develop
Characteristics of Cities.
• 1-specialized workers
• 2-complex institutions
• 3-record keeping
• 4-advanced technology
Advanced Cities
• Birthplace of first
civilizations
• Center of trade for
larger area
• Depend on trade
• Produced goods for
exchange
Villages Grow into Cities
• What makes a city a city
– High Populations
- Diverse populations
– More formal
organization( i.e. parts of
the city and defined
center)
– Centers of trade.
Complex Institutions
• Institution-a long lasting
pattern of organization in
a community
• Organized government
– Formed governments
– Needed to establish laws
– Collective organization
• Religion
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Temples
Priests
City belonged to the gods
Served as economic center
Specialized Workers
• Specializationdevelopment of skills in
a specific kind of work
• Artisans- made good by
hand (metal, tools,
pottery)
• Helped cities to become
center of trade
Social Class
• Ancient civilization
developed social orders
based on wealth and
power.
1) Rulers & Priest
2) Merchants and artisans
3) Farmers and Unskilled
workers
4) Enslaved people.
Record Keeping
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Document taxes
Passage of law
Storage of grain
Keep track of calendars
and rituals
• Systems of writing
Record Keeping
• Scribes-professional
record keepers
• Cuneiform- meaning
wedge shaped writing
– Pictographs- symbols of
writing
– Used a sharpened reed
– Baked tables in the sun
– Beginning of written
history (Sumer)
Cultural Diffusion Good or Bad
• Good
The spread of ideas,
beliefs, customs, and
technology from one
culture to another.
• Bad
Section Assessment
• Complete Section Assessment on page. 23. Do
question 2 & 3.
• Turn in once you’re done.
Improved Technology
• Ox drawn plows
• Irrigation systems
• Pottery wheel
– Jugs, plates, bowls
• 2500 BC metal workers
– Melt tin and bronze
– Made spearheads
• Bronze Age-using
bronze instead of
copper and stone
Civilization Emerges in Ur
• Ur- one of the earliest
cities
• 30,000 residents
• Agricultural
– Large scale irrigation
– Food surpluses
• Life in the City
– One story box homes
– Merchants and artisans
Ur’s Thriving Trade
• Merchants on broad
avenues
• Coins are not used
• Trade pots of grain for a
jug of wine
• Barter-the trading of
goods without using
money
The Temple: center of City Life
• Ziggurat- pyramid
shaped monument
means “mountain of
god”
• 100 steps to top
• Priests conduct rituals
• Sacrifice animals
• Storage of grain, woven
fabrics, gems
• Believe in afterlife

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