Civilization Case Study: Ur in Sumer

Report
Civilization Case Study: Ur in
Sumer
Chapter 1
Section 3
Key Terms
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Civilization
Specialization
Artisan
Institution
Scribe
Cuneiform
Bronze Age
Barter
Ziggurat
Villages Grow into Cities
• Economic changes
– Irrigation systems for
more crops
– Food surplus
– Develop other skills
– Wheel and sail invented
– Trade developed
Villages Grow into Cities
• Social changes
– Specific groups of
workers
– Formed social classes
– Religion more organized
– Centered on nature and
animal spirits
– New Stone Age many
gods and goddesses
How Civilization Develops
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Civilizations
1-advanced cities
2-specialized workers
3-complex institutions
4-record keeping
5-advanced technology
Advanced Cities
• Birthplace of first
civilizations
• Center of trade for
larger area
• Depend on trade
• Produced goods for
exchange
Specialized Workers
• Specializationdevelopment of skills in
a specific kind of work
• Artisans- made good by
hand (metal, tools,
pottery)
• Helped cities to become
center of trade
Complex Institutions
• Institution-a long lasting
pattern of organization in
a community
• Soaring populations
– Formed governments
– Needed to establish laws
• Religion
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Temples
Priests
City belonged to the gods
Served as economic center
Record Keeping
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Document taxes
Passage of law
Storage of grain
Keep track of calendars
and rituals
• Systems of writing
Record Keeping
• Scribes-professional
record keepers
• Cuneiform- meaning
wedge shaped writing
– Pictographs- symbols of
writing
– Used a sharpened reed
– Baked tables in the sun
– Beginning of written
history (Sumer)
Improved Technology
• Ox drawn plows
• Irrigation systems
• Pottery wheel
– Jugs, plates, bowls
• 2500 BC metal workers
– Melt tin and bronze
– Made spearheads
• Bronze Age-using
bronze instead of
copper and stone
Civilization Emerges in Ur
• Ur- one of the earliest
cities
• 30,000 residents
• Agricultural
– Large scale irrigation
– Food surpluses
• Life in the City
– One story box homes
– Merchants and artisans
Ur’s Thriving Trade
• Merchants on broad
avenues
• Coins are not used
• Trade pots of grain for a
jug of wine
• Barter-the trading of
goods without using
money
The Temple: center of City Life
• Ziggurat- pyramid
shaped monument
means “mountain of
god”
• 100 steps to top
• Priests conduct rituals
• Sacrifice animals
• Storage of grain, woven
fabrics, gems
• Believe in afterlife

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