Unit 1 Chapter 1 Section 1 Culture: People’s unique way of life Paleolithic Age: Stone Age, use of tools Neolithic Age: Age of farming and domestication of animals Technology: Ways of applying knowledge, tools to meet a person’s needs Homo Sapiens: Modern Humans Archeologists: Learn about people by excavating and studying early settlements Artifacts: Remains such as tools, jewelry, and other human made objects. (Clues to the past) Anthropologists: Study of Culture, or people’s unique way of life Paleontologists: Study fossils and determine the age of the fossil rock 1970’s Tanzania (East Africa) Mary Leaky Finds Foot Prints Found a Hominid (Early Human) footprints over 3 million years old in East Africa Homo Sapiens Developed between 200,000 and 40,000 years ago Neanderthals’ Way of Life Remains discovered in Europe and Southeast Asia Developed Religious Beliefs and Preformed Rituals Disappeared about 30,000 years ago Chapter 1 Section 2 Nomad: Mobile people without permanent settlements Hunter-Gatherer: People who constantly hunt and gather for food/survival Neolithic Revolution (Agricultural Revolution): The shift from hunting-gathering to FARMING/DOMESTICATION OF ANIMALS Slash-and-Burn Farming: Cut and burn method of farming. Returns nutrients to the soil. Domestication: Taming or training of animals for human use. Nomads: Wonder from place to place in search of food and they never make permanent settlements These people are called Hunter-Gathers Followed the herds, seasons, etc. Civilizations did not develop. Why? Define: Domestic What is a “Domestic Cars vs. Imported Cars” Humans drove animals into man-made structures (Fences) Herded animals to serve as food and labor sources! Define: Neolithic Revolution Causes of the Agricultural Revolution As climates warmed, grasses and grains had longer growing season Farming provided a steady food supply, allowing people to stay in one area Slash and Burn farming allowed humans to clear large areas of land for farming Chapter 1 Section 3 Civilization: Complex culture with 5 characteristics: (1) advanced cities, (2) specialized workers, (3) complex institutions, (4) record keeping, (5) Advanced tech. Specialization: Development of “specific skills” Artisan: Skilled craftsmen Institutions: An established organization or foundation, especially one dedicated to education, public service or culture (Government, Religion, Economy, Schools) Scribe: Professional writers Cuneiform: “Wedge Shaped Writing” Bronze Age: Time period when Bronze was primarily used for tools Barter: Trade of goods without money Ziggurat: Pyramid-shaped religious temple. (Layered) Farming Develops in Many Places!!! What was needed for farming?? Humans developed agriculture independently in Africa, China, and South America The discovery of agriculture and the domestication of animals allowed the creation of villages Birth of Civilizations Bronze Age: People used Bronze to make tools and weapons Villages grow into cities and force changes in society Economic Changes!! Surplus of food allows for specialized workers Specialization: Allowed people to make important advances in technology (Wheel and Sail) Social Changes People needed to work together Religion becomes more organized 5 Features of Civilization MUST REMEMBER! 1. Advanced Cities 2. Specialized Workers (artisans) 3. Complex Institutions (Government) 4. Record Keeping (Writing/Language, Scribes) 5. Advanced Technology Specialized Workers Complexed Institutions Advanced Cities Record Keeping Advanced Technology Economy Depended on goods from outlying farmers and merchants for trade Why do people trade? Used a Barter System Money is not used to buy goods (Canal Street, NYC) Religion Center of city life was based around a Ziggurat, a massive temple What is a Hunter-Gather? Define the Neolithic Revolution What does it mean to domesticate animals? What did farming allow humans to do for the first time? List and/or describe one of the five elements of Civilization.