Chapter One - Falconer Central School

Report
Unit 1
Chapter 1
Section 1
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Culture: People’s unique way of life
Paleolithic Age: Stone Age, use of tools
Neolithic Age: Age of farming and domestication of
animals
Technology: Ways of applying knowledge, tools to meet
a person’s needs
Homo Sapiens: Modern Humans
Archeologists: Learn about people by excavating and
studying early settlements
Artifacts: Remains such as tools, jewelry, and other
human made objects. (Clues to the past)
Anthropologists: Study of Culture, or people’s unique
way of life
Paleontologists: Study fossils and determine the age of
the fossil rock
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1970’s Tanzania (East Africa)
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Mary Leaky Finds Foot Prints
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Found a Hominid (Early Human) footprints
over 3 million years old in East Africa
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Homo Sapiens Developed between 200,000 and
40,000 years ago
Neanderthals’ Way of Life
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Remains discovered in Europe and Southeast Asia
Developed Religious Beliefs and Preformed Rituals
Disappeared about 30,000 years ago
Chapter 1
Section 2
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Nomad: Mobile people without permanent
settlements
Hunter-Gatherer: People who constantly hunt and
gather for food/survival
Neolithic Revolution (Agricultural Revolution): The
shift from hunting-gathering to
FARMING/DOMESTICATION OF ANIMALS
Slash-and-Burn Farming: Cut and burn method of
farming. Returns nutrients to the soil.
Domestication: Taming or training of animals for
human use.
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Nomads: Wonder from place to place in search
of food and they never make permanent
settlements
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These people are called Hunter-Gathers
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Followed the herds, seasons, etc.
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Civilizations did not develop. Why?
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Define: Domestic
What is a “Domestic Cars vs.
Imported Cars”
Humans drove animals into
man-made structures
(Fences)
Herded animals to serve as food
and labor sources!
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Define: Neolithic Revolution
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Causes of the Agricultural Revolution
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As climates warmed, grasses and grains had longer
growing season
Farming provided a steady food supply,
allowing people to stay in one area
Slash and Burn farming allowed humans to clear
large areas of land for farming
Chapter 1
Section 3
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Civilization: Complex culture with 5 characteristics: (1) advanced cities, (2)
specialized workers, (3) complex institutions, (4) record keeping, (5)
Advanced tech.
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Specialization: Development of “specific skills”
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Artisan: Skilled craftsmen
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Institutions: An established organization or foundation, especially one
dedicated to education, public service or culture (Government, Religion,
Economy, Schools)
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Scribe: Professional writers
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Cuneiform: “Wedge Shaped Writing”
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Bronze Age: Time period when Bronze was primarily used for tools
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Barter: Trade of goods without money
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Ziggurat: Pyramid-shaped religious temple. (Layered)
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Farming Develops in Many Places!!!
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What was needed for farming??
Humans developed agriculture independently in
Africa, China, and South America
The discovery of agriculture and the
domestication of animals allowed the creation of
villages
Birth of Civilizations
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Bronze Age: People used Bronze to make tools
and weapons
Villages grow into cities and force changes in
society
Economic Changes!!
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Surplus of food allows for specialized workers
Specialization: Allowed people to make important
advances in technology (Wheel and Sail)
Social Changes
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People needed to work together
Religion becomes more organized
5 Features of Civilization
MUST REMEMBER!
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Advanced Cities
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Specialized Workers (artisans)
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Complex Institutions (Government)
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Record Keeping (Writing/Language, Scribes)
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Advanced Technology
Specialized
Workers
Complexed
Institutions
Advanced
Cities
Record
Keeping
Advanced
Technology
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Economy
Depended on goods from outlying farmers and
merchants for trade
 Why do people trade?
 Used a Barter System
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 Money is not used to buy goods (Canal Street, NYC)
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Religion
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Center of city life was based around a Ziggurat, a
massive temple
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What is a Hunter-Gather?
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Define the Neolithic Revolution
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What does it mean to domesticate animals?
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What did farming allow humans to do for the first
time?
List and/or describe one of the five elements of
Civilization.

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