CHAPTER 7 Week 1 Homework for the Week • Monday 11/11 • Chpt 7 268-274 • Tuesday 11/12 • Chpt 7 275-281 • Wednesday 11/13 • Chpt 7 282-284 • Thursday 11/14 • Study Vocab • Friday 11/15 • Chpt 7 285-288 Agenda: Tuesday 11/12 • Intro to Chapter 7 • Homework Review • Monday 11/11 • Chpt 7 268-274 • Discuss Project • Examples • Tuesday 11/12 • Chpt 7 275-281 • Wednesday 11/13 • Chpt 7 282-284 • Thursday 11/14 • Study Vocab • Friday 11/15 • Chpt 7 285-288 Chapter 7: Learning • Essential Questions: • How do psychologists define learning? • How do principles of classical conditioning work to create learning? • In what ways does classical conditioning work in human contexts? • How do principles of operant conditioning work to create learning? • In what ways does operant conditioning work in human contexts? • Objectives • Describe the elements of classical conditioning. • Apply classical conditioning to different situations. • Describe the elements of operant conditioning. • Differentiate among the various forms of reinforcement and punishment. • Apply elements of operant conditioning to different situations. [CR15] • Describe observational learning. • Describe how biology influences learning. • Describe how cognition influences learning Homework Review: pgs 264-274 • What is learning? • What is associative learning? • What is classical conditioning? • Example: Little Albert Video (start at 1:10): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9hBfnXACsOI • Fun: http://vimeo.com/35754924 • What is operant conditioning? • What is acquisition? • What is extinction and spontaneous recovery? • What is generalization? • What is discrimination? Agenda: Block Day 11/13 & 11/14 • Warm up • Classical Conditioning • Monday 11/11 • Chpt 7 268-274 Activity • Project Work Time • Tuesday 11/12 • Chpt 7 275-281 • Wednesday 11/13 • Chpt 7 282-284 • Thursday 11/14 • Study Vocab • Friday 11/15 • Chpt 7 285-288 Terminology • Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): Stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response (automatic) • Conditioned Stimulus (CS): Previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response • Unconditioned Response (UCR): Unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning • Conditioned Response (CR): Learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning Classical Conditioning Identify US, UR, CS, CR • One of Toms friends has a night of boozing on many Vodka screwdrivers, and eating much pizza and salad with bacon bits. After becoming sick, she refuses to eat bacon bits. • Answers: • US=too much booze • UR=nausea • CS=bacon bits • CR=nausea from bacon bits. • *Also, taste aversion learning (bacon bits are very distinctive and she eats them only rarely) Identify US, UR, CS, CR • Whenever you watch a scary show, you always have a big bowl of popcorn. Now you find that just having a bowl of popcorn makes you feel creepy. Later your scary show is canceled, and you start eating popcorn while watching Seinfeld. Now the popcorn makes you feel happy. • Answers: • Counter conditioning. • US=scary movie (loud sounds, surprise), then US=humor • UR=fear then happy feelings • CS=bowl of popcorn • CR=fear, then happiness Identify the parts of Conditioning • The first time Joe went to the casino he won a jackpot and was very excited and happy. He won again the next time he went. He has since lost all the money and is gambling more than he can afford to lose. Classical Conditioning Activity • Every student needs a small cup w/powdered drink mix • You will be given a “cue” word and whenever you hear the • • • • cue word, you will lick the tip of your finger, place it in the drink mix and then place it on your tongue. Only do this when you hear the cue word. If I raise my hand when I say the cue word you are NOT to dip your finger. The cue word is: Rayner Story Time! Applications of Classical Conditioning • Fears • Addictions • Advertising • Pairing good looking models with products • Music and product • Aversion Therapy • Taste Aversion • Antabuse/Alcoholism MCI, security, raise hand Operant Conditioning • Thorndike’s Law of Effect Behavior preceding positive reinforcement increases Behavior preceding punishment or no reinforcement decreases • Puzzle Box: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BDujDOLre-8 • Skinner • Skinner Box: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I_ctJqjlrHA • Shaping: Reinforcing small steps toward more complex behavior • Discrimitive Stimulus: signals availability of reinforcement or punishment (light, sound, parent) Thorndike Puzzle Box Skinner Box Terminology and Consequences Reinforcement: consequences that strengthen responses • Positive Reinforcement: • A response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus • Negative Reinforcement: • A response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus (buzzer for seat belt) • Conditioned Reinforcement • Primary Reinforcers: Inherently reinforcing satisfy biological needs (food, water, shelter) • Secondary Reinforcers: Acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers (money, stickers, praise) Pro Con: Schedules of Reinforcement Pro Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Schedule: FixedRatio Schedule: Variable-Ratio Schedule: FixedInterval Schedule: Variable-Interval Pro Example Con Con Example Agenda: Friday 11/15 • Vocab Quiz • Finish discussing schedules of reinforcement • Punishment • Project Work Time • Monday 11/11 • Chpt 7 268-274 • Tuesday 11/12 • Chpt 7 275-281 • Wednesday 11/13 • Chpt 7 282-284 • Thursday 11/14 • Study Vocab • Friday 11/15 • Chpt 7 285-288 Pro Con: Schedules of Reinforcement Pro Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Schedule: FixedRatio Schedule: Variable-Ratio Schedule: FixedInterval Schedule: Variable-Interval Pro Example Con Con Example Punishment • Negative Punishment: Occurs when an averse stimulus follows a response and decreases the tendency to make that response • Positive Punishment (omission): Taking away something of value (grounding, no car, no scholarship) • *Punishment occurs when an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus follows a behavior. • For example: if you are grounded for two weeks because you stayed out past your curfew, you may think twice about staying out late next time. However, in order for punishment to be effective, it must be swift, consistent, and sufficient. • Punishment can also have several undesirable side effects. For example: if a child is spanked following an inappropriate behavior, the child may learn to fear (and thus avoid) the punisher. Putting it all Together • The following scenarios describe some behaviors and their consequences. Your task is to apply the principles of operant conditioning to predict whether the targeting behavior (the underlined one) will occur in the future. Read each scenario, focusing on the underlined behavior, and identify whether the consequence (in bold) for the person performing the behavior was positive (+), aversive (-), or neither (0). Then specify whether the targeted behavior is likely to increase ( ) or decrease (¯ ). Finally, identify the principle as positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, or extinction Scenario a) A student volunteers to answer a tough question in class, and the teacher comments favorably on the quality of the student’s contribution. b) A wife brings home flowers to herhusband because he cooked dinner for her the previous day. c) A child is sent to his room with no dinner after bringing home a bad report card. d) Dad and three-year-old Marcie enter the checkout lane of the supermarket. When Marcie screams for candy, Dad buys a sucker to quiet her down. e) A child spills milk all over the dinner table. Mom, (having had a bad day) swoops her up and spanks her. f) An AP psychology student develops a terrible headache after studying for a big exam. He takes two aspirin and theheadache disappears. g) Two siblings, who usually spend most of their time fighting, finally play peaceably. Dad peeks in and sighs, "At last, they are getting along." He returns to work on his computerwithout saying anything to the kids. h) A spoiled child is being driven past a fast-food restaurant when he begins screaming that he must have some French fries or he just won’t survive. The parents surrender and buy the fries, at which time the child stops screaming. i) A teenager whines about having nothing to do. Dad gives him a long lecture about how hard things were when he was a teen and how his son has nothing to complain about. j) A terrorist applies an electrical current to the feet of a spy so she will confess. Once she begins to confess, the painful shock is removed. Nature of Consequence (+) or (-) Likelihood of Recurrence ( ) or (¯ ) Principle Project Work Time • Your project should include a ‘lab report’ with all of the following: • Part 1: Intro (typed) • What is learning? • What is Operant Conditioning? • What is Classical Conditioning? • Which did you use? Why? • Summary of your conditioning project, 2-3 Paragraphs • Advanced Option: Write the lab report using the scientific method • Part 2: Research Journal (typed or handwritten) • You are to keep a log of your attempts at conditioning your subject. • What successes and/or failures did you experience in your conditioning attempts? • Part 3: Detailed Description of type of conditioning used. (1-2 pages) • Include 2-3 photographs, charts, etc. to help outline and document your conditioning experiment. • If you used Operant Conditioning include answers to the following: • • • • • • • What was the baseline behavior? What was the target behavior? (be very specific) What types of Reinforcers were used and why? What type of reinforcement schedule did you use and why? Why didn’t you use punishment? How did you shape through successive approximations? How did you prevent against response generalization? • If you used Classical Conditioning include answers to the following: • What were the UCS, UCR, CS, and CR? • How did contingency play into the conditioning of your subject? • Why was time important in pairing the UCS with the CS? • How did extinction, stimulus generalization, and spontaneous recovery play a role in your conditioning experiment?