Chapter 7 Week 1

Report
CHAPTER 7
Week 1
Homework for the Week
• Monday 11/11
• Chpt 7 268-274
• Tuesday 11/12
• Chpt 7 275-281
• Wednesday 11/13
• Chpt 7 282-284
• Thursday 11/14
• Study Vocab
• Friday 11/15
• Chpt 7 285-288
Agenda: Tuesday 11/12
• Intro to Chapter 7
• Homework Review
• Monday 11/11
• Chpt 7 268-274
• Discuss Project
• Examples
• Tuesday 11/12
• Chpt 7 275-281
• Wednesday 11/13
• Chpt 7 282-284
• Thursday 11/14
• Study Vocab
• Friday 11/15
• Chpt 7 285-288
Chapter 7: Learning
• Essential Questions:
• How do psychologists define
learning?
• How do principles of classical
conditioning work to create
learning?
• In what ways does classical
conditioning work in human
contexts?
• How do principles of operant
conditioning work to create
learning?
• In what ways does operant
conditioning work in human
contexts?
• Objectives
• Describe the elements of classical
conditioning.
• Apply classical conditioning to
different situations.
• Describe the elements of operant
conditioning.
• Differentiate among the various
forms of reinforcement and
punishment.
• Apply elements of operant
conditioning to different situations.
[CR15]
• Describe observational learning.
• Describe how biology influences
learning.
• Describe how cognition influences
learning
Homework Review: pgs 264-274
• What is learning?
• What is associative learning?
• What is classical conditioning?
• Example: Little Albert Video (start at 1:10):
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9hBfnXACsOI
• Fun: http://vimeo.com/35754924
• What is operant conditioning?
• What is acquisition?
• What is extinction and spontaneous recovery?
• What is generalization?
• What is discrimination?
Agenda: Block Day 11/13 & 11/14
• Warm up
• Classical Conditioning
• Monday 11/11
• Chpt 7 268-274
Activity
• Project Work Time
• Tuesday 11/12
• Chpt 7 275-281
• Wednesday 11/13
• Chpt 7 282-284
• Thursday 11/14
• Study Vocab
• Friday 11/15
• Chpt 7 285-288
Terminology
• Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): Stimulus that evokes
an unconditioned response (automatic)
• Conditioned Stimulus (CS): Previously neutral
stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the
capacity to evoke a conditioned response
• Unconditioned Response (UCR): Unlearned reaction
to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without
previous conditioning
• Conditioned Response (CR): Learned reaction to a
conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous
conditioning
Classical Conditioning
Identify US, UR, CS, CR
• One of Toms friends has a night of boozing on many
Vodka screwdrivers, and eating much pizza and salad
with bacon bits. After becoming sick, she refuses to eat
bacon bits.
• Answers:
• US=too much booze
• UR=nausea
• CS=bacon bits
• CR=nausea from bacon bits.
• *Also, taste aversion learning (bacon bits are very distinctive and
she
eats them only rarely)
Identify US, UR, CS, CR
• Whenever you watch a scary show, you always have a
big bowl of popcorn. Now you find that just having a bowl
of popcorn makes you feel creepy. Later your scary show
is canceled, and you start eating popcorn while watching
Seinfeld. Now the popcorn makes you feel happy.
• Answers:
• Counter conditioning.
• US=scary movie (loud sounds, surprise), then
US=humor
• UR=fear then happy feelings
• CS=bowl of popcorn
• CR=fear,
then happiness
Identify the parts of Conditioning
• The first time Joe went to the casino he won a jackpot and
was very excited and happy. He won again the next time
he went. He has since lost all the money and is gambling
more than he can afford to lose.
Classical Conditioning Activity
• Every student needs a small cup w/powdered drink mix
• You will be given a “cue” word and whenever you hear the
•
•
•
•
cue word, you will lick the tip of your finger, place it in the
drink mix and then place it on your tongue.
Only do this when you hear the cue word.
If I raise my hand when I say the cue word you are NOT
to dip your finger.
The cue word is: Rayner
Story Time!
Applications of Classical Conditioning
• Fears
• Addictions
• Advertising
• Pairing good looking models with products
• Music and product
• Aversion Therapy
• Taste Aversion
• Antabuse/Alcoholism
MCI, security, raise hand
Operant Conditioning
• Thorndike’s Law of Effect
Behavior preceding positive reinforcement increases
Behavior preceding punishment or no reinforcement
decreases
• Puzzle Box: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BDujDOLre-8
• Skinner
• Skinner Box: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I_ctJqjlrHA
• Shaping: Reinforcing small steps toward more complex
behavior
• Discrimitive Stimulus: signals availability of
reinforcement or punishment (light, sound, parent)
Thorndike Puzzle Box
Skinner Box
Terminology and Consequences
Reinforcement: consequences that strengthen responses
• Positive Reinforcement:
• A response is strengthened because it is followed by the
presentation of a rewarding stimulus
• Negative Reinforcement:
• A response is strengthened because it is followed by the
removal of an aversive stimulus (buzzer for seat belt)
• Conditioned Reinforcement
• Primary Reinforcers: Inherently reinforcing satisfy
biological needs (food, water, shelter)
• Secondary Reinforcers: Acquire reinforcing qualities by
being associated with primary reinforcers (money,
stickers, praise)
Pro Con: Schedules of Reinforcement
Pro
Positive
Reinforcement
Negative
Reinforcement
Schedule: FixedRatio
Schedule:
Variable-Ratio
Schedule: FixedInterval
Schedule:
Variable-Interval
Pro Example
Con
Con Example
Agenda: Friday 11/15
• Vocab Quiz
• Finish discussing
schedules of
reinforcement
• Punishment
• Project Work Time
• Monday 11/11
• Chpt 7 268-274
• Tuesday 11/12
• Chpt 7 275-281
• Wednesday 11/13
• Chpt 7 282-284
• Thursday 11/14
• Study Vocab
• Friday 11/15
• Chpt 7 285-288
Pro Con: Schedules of Reinforcement
Pro
Positive
Reinforcement
Negative
Reinforcement
Schedule: FixedRatio
Schedule:
Variable-Ratio
Schedule: FixedInterval
Schedule:
Variable-Interval
Pro Example
Con
Con Example
Punishment
• Negative Punishment: Occurs when an averse stimulus
follows a response and decreases the tendency to make
that response
• Positive Punishment (omission): Taking away
something of value (grounding, no car, no scholarship)
• *Punishment occurs when an aversive
(unpleasant) stimulus follows a behavior.
• For example: if you are grounded for two weeks because you
stayed out past your curfew, you may think twice about staying out
late next time. However, in order for punishment to be effective, it
must be swift, consistent, and sufficient.
• Punishment can also have several undesirable side effects. For
example: if a child is spanked following an inappropriate behavior,
the child may learn to fear (and thus avoid) the punisher.
Putting it all Together
• The following scenarios describe some behaviors and
their consequences. Your task is to apply the principles of
operant conditioning to predict whether the targeting
behavior (the underlined one) will occur in the future.
Read each scenario, focusing on the underlined behavior,
and identify whether the consequence (in bold) for the
person performing the behavior was positive (+),
aversive (-), or neither (0). Then specify whether
the targeted behavior is likely to increase ( ) or decrease
(¯ ). Finally, identify the principle as positive
reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment,
or extinction
Scenario
a) A student volunteers to answer a tough question in
class, and the teacher comments favorably on the
quality of the student’s contribution.
b) A wife brings home flowers to herhusband because
he cooked dinner for her the previous day.
c) A child is sent to his room with no dinner after bringing
home a bad report card.
d) Dad and three-year-old Marcie enter the checkout
lane of the supermarket. When Marcie screams for
candy, Dad buys a sucker to quiet her down.
e) A child spills milk all over the dinner table. Mom,
(having had a bad day) swoops her up and spanks her.
f) An AP psychology student develops a terrible
headache after studying for a big exam. He takes two
aspirin and theheadache disappears.
g) Two siblings, who usually spend most of their time
fighting, finally play peaceably. Dad peeks in and sighs,
"At last, they are getting along." He returns to work on
his computerwithout saying anything to the kids.
h) A spoiled child is being driven past a fast-food
restaurant when he begins screaming that he must have
some French fries or he just won’t survive. The
parents surrender and buy the fries, at which time the
child stops screaming.
i) A teenager whines about having nothing to do.
Dad gives him a long lecture about how hard things
were when he was a teen and how his son has nothing
to complain about.
j) A terrorist applies an electrical current to the feet of a
spy so she will confess. Once she begins to confess,
the painful shock is removed.
Nature of Consequence
(+) or (-)
Likelihood of Recurrence ( ) or
(¯ )
Principle
Project Work Time
• Your project should include a ‘lab report’ with all of the following:
• Part 1: Intro (typed)
• What is learning?
• What is Operant Conditioning?
• What is Classical Conditioning?
• Which did you use? Why?
• Summary of your conditioning project, 2-3 Paragraphs
• Advanced Option: Write the lab report using the scientific method
• Part 2: Research Journal (typed or handwritten)
• You are to keep a log of your attempts at conditioning your subject.
• What successes and/or failures did you experience in your conditioning attempts?
• Part 3: Detailed Description of type of conditioning used. (1-2 pages)
• Include 2-3 photographs, charts, etc. to help outline and document your conditioning experiment.
• If you used Operant Conditioning include answers to the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
What was the baseline behavior?
What was the target behavior? (be very specific)
What types of Reinforcers were used and why?
What type of reinforcement schedule did you use and why?
Why didn’t you use punishment?
How did you shape through successive approximations?
How did you prevent against response generalization?
• If you used Classical Conditioning include answers to the following:
• What were the UCS, UCR, CS, and CR?
• How did contingency play into the conditioning of your subject?
• Why was time important in pairing the UCS with the CS?
• How did extinction, stimulus generalization, and spontaneous recovery play a role in your conditioning experiment?

similar documents