Section 1 Quiz 1. What happens during a revolution? a) b) c) d) 2. What can you do with domesticated animals? a) b) c) d) 3. Extra food spoils People wait in line for food Families have extra food Not enough rain falls to grow food What made the first villages possible? a) b) c) d) 6. 7. Are very good at one skill Grow all their own food Speak one language very well Can solve almost any problem When there is a surplus of food, a) b) c) d) 5. Watch them hunt Study their origins Hunt them for food Use them for work Specialization includes people who a) b) c) d) 4. Life changes some Life changes completely Life changes a little Life doesn’t change at all Warm clothing Government Armies Farming What is one cost of farming? What is one benefit of farming? Section 2 Cities and Civilizations The First Cities • First cities were farming villages in the Middle East The City of Uruk • World’s first cities- founded between 5000 and 6000 BC • Covered nearly 1,000 acres • Had houses, gardens, and large public buildings • Strong, well-organized government Centers of Wealth • Uruk had a complex economy that included farming and extensive trade within and beyond the city • People moved to Uruk because the city was wealthy and filled with goods that people might want to buy The Rise of Civilizations • A civilization is a complex society that has cities, a well-organized government, and workers with specialized job skills. The Importance of Resources • The rise of civilizations depended on the creation of a food surplus. • A resource is a supply of something that can be used as needed. • People have to organize their supplies and labor in order to produce the most food possible from the available materials Settings of Early Civilizations • The earliest CIVILIZATION also appeared in Southwestern Asia, in the city-states of Sumer. • Four of the early civilizations developed in the fertile valley surrounding major rivers: – – – – The Nile in northeastern Africa The Tigris and Euphrates in southwest Asia The Indus in South Asia The Huang River in China Features of Civilizations • The world’s early civilizations shared the eight basic features of civilization – Cities, organized government, established religion, job specialization, social classes, public works, arts and architecture, and a system of writing. Cities • • Reflect a culture’s success at creating food surpluses, specialization, and government. Served as centers of religion and culture. Organized Governments • • • • Government has the power and ability to organize large numbers of people for a task, such as moving food from one place to another. Government manages resources so people get what they need to survive. Government can form and train an army. As population grew, rulers relied on public officials who handled different jobs. Established Religion • • People shared the same ideas about religion so they felt connected to each other and like a part of a larger community. Linked to government Job Specialization • Allowed a community to produce the tools and talent they needed to expand and support the complex needs of a civilization Social Classes • Groups of people that occupy different ranks or levels in a society. – – – At the top were rulers and priests In the middle were farmers, merchants, and skilled workers At the bottom were slaves. Public Works • • Benefits- roads, water systems Risks- danger to workers, costly, and time-consuming Arts and Architecture • • Enriched the lives of early people Buildings served a public function but were also objects of beauty System of Writing • • Recorded laws, prayers, harvest amounts, deeds of rulers It helps us learn about ancient civilizations Culture 1: Sumarian My city, Ur, was built along the Euphrates River. Merchants come to our city to trade. They find traders at the city’s riverside docks offering bounty from up and down the mighty Euphrates. Crops from our farmers also go to faraway lands to be traded for metals or stone that we use in jewelry or tools. People in Ur worship the city’s special god, the moon god Nanna, or go to the giant ziggurat temple. In the courtyard of the ziggurat, you can see all of Ur’s exciting daily life. I would love to visit the beautiful palace of King UrNamma but only nobles and priests can go there. The king has brought our great city back to glory. I hope his scribes write down his wonderful achievements. Culture 2: Incan My city, Machu Picchu, is found high in the mountains. Special messengers bring important news to the city on the empire’s amazing roads- 10.000 miles of them in all. They also take orders to faraway parts of the empire. Sometimes they go the palace where Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui and others in the royal family live. Farmers and priests also live in my city. They can meet in Machu Picchu’s beautiful main plaza. Not far from the plaza is the Intihuatana, a special sundial for praying to the sun god Inti. Record keepers use a system of knots to keep track of how many people live in the city.