Cities and Civilizations

Report
Section 1 Quiz
1.
What happens during a revolution?
a)
b)
c)
d)
2.
What can you do with domesticated animals?
a)
b)
c)
d)
3.
Extra food spoils
People wait in line for food
Families have extra food
Not enough rain falls to grow food
What made the first villages possible?
a)
b)
c)
d)
6.
7.
Are very good at one skill
Grow all their own food
Speak one language very well
Can solve almost any problem
When there is a surplus of food,
a)
b)
c)
d)
5.
Watch them hunt
Study their origins
Hunt them for food
Use them for work
Specialization includes people who
a)
b)
c)
d)
4.
Life changes some
Life changes completely
Life changes a little
Life doesn’t change at all
Warm clothing
Government
Armies
Farming
What is one cost of farming?
What is one benefit of farming?
Section 2 Cities and Civilizations
The First Cities
• First cities were farming villages in the
Middle East
The City of Uruk
• World’s first cities- founded between 5000
and 6000 BC
• Covered nearly 1,000 acres
• Had houses, gardens, and large public
buildings
• Strong, well-organized government
Centers of Wealth
• Uruk had a complex economy that included
farming and extensive trade within and
beyond the city
• People moved to Uruk because the city was
wealthy and filled with goods that people
might want to buy
The Rise of Civilizations
• A civilization is a complex society that has cities, a well-organized government, and workers with specialized job
skills.
The Importance of Resources
• The rise of civilizations depended on the creation of a food surplus.
• A resource is a supply of something that can be used as needed.
• People have to organize their supplies and labor in order to produce the most food possible from the available
materials
Settings of Early Civilizations
• The earliest CIVILIZATION also appeared in Southwestern Asia, in the city-states of Sumer.
• Four of the early civilizations developed in the fertile valley surrounding major rivers:
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–
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The Nile in northeastern Africa
The Tigris and Euphrates in southwest Asia
The Indus in South Asia
The Huang River in China
Features of Civilizations
•
The world’s early civilizations shared the eight basic features of civilization
–
Cities, organized government, established religion, job specialization, social classes, public works, arts and architecture, and a system of writing.
Cities
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•
Reflect a culture’s success at creating food surpluses, specialization, and government.
Served as centers of religion and culture.
Organized Governments
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Government has the power and ability to organize large numbers of people for a task, such as moving food from one place to
another.
Government manages resources so people get what they need to survive.
Government can form and train an army.
As population grew, rulers relied on public officials who handled different jobs.
Established Religion
•
•
People shared the same ideas about religion so they felt connected to each other and like a part of a larger community.
Linked to government
Job Specialization
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Allowed a community to produce the tools and talent they needed to expand and support the complex needs of a civilization
Social Classes
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Groups of people that occupy different ranks or levels in a society.
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At the top were rulers and priests
In the middle were farmers, merchants, and skilled workers
At the bottom were slaves.
Public Works
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Benefits- roads, water systems
Risks- danger to workers, costly, and time-consuming
Arts and Architecture
•
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Enriched the lives of early people
Buildings served a public function but were also objects of beauty
System of Writing
•
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Recorded laws, prayers, harvest amounts, deeds of rulers
It helps us learn about ancient civilizations
Culture 1: Sumarian
My city, Ur, was built along the
Euphrates River. Merchants come to
our city to trade. They find traders at
the city’s riverside docks offering
bounty from up and down the mighty
Euphrates. Crops from our farmers
also go to faraway lands to be traded
for metals or stone that we use in
jewelry or tools. People in Ur worship
the city’s special god, the moon god
Nanna, or go to the giant ziggurat
temple. In the courtyard of the
ziggurat, you can see all of Ur’s
exciting daily life. I would love to visit
the beautiful palace of King UrNamma but only nobles and priests
can go there. The king has brought
our great city back to glory. I hope his
scribes write down his wonderful
achievements.
Culture 2: Incan
My city, Machu Picchu, is found high
in the mountains. Special
messengers bring important news to
the city on the empire’s amazing
roads- 10.000 miles of them in all.
They also take orders to faraway
parts of the empire. Sometimes they
go the palace where Pachacuti Inca
Yupanqui and others in the royal
family live. Farmers and priests also
live in my city. They can meet in
Machu Picchu’s beautiful main plaza.
Not far from the plaza is the
Intihuatana, a special sundial for
praying to the sun god Inti. Record
keepers use a system of knots to
keep track of how many people live
in the city.

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