Carolingians

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Merovingians
Merovingian is derived from the leader of the tribe of Franks
First dynasty after the Romans and ruled for 300 years
Leader in 481 CE was Clovis I- he united Frankish tribes and expanded
territory
His conversion to Christianity won him support from the Church
Merovingian's founded and built many monasteries, churches and palaces
and spread Christianity throughout Western Europe
IMPACT = Eventually dynasty declined as kings relaxed power and
became more like figure heads whereas the real power lay with the
powerful officials and leading aristocracy
Saint Pepin of Landen, also known as Pepin the Elder was the Mayor of the Palace of the
Austrasia under Merovingian kings
Pepin II
He was the grandson of Pippin the Elder.
Around 670, Pippin II married Plectrude for her inheritance of substantial estates in the Moselle
region. They produced at least two children and through them at least two significant
grandchildren. These legitimate children and grandchildren claimed themselves to be Pepin's true
successors and with the help of his widow Plectrude tried to maintain the position of Mayor of the
Palace after Pepin II’s death on December 16, 714.
Charles Martel, Pippin's son by his mistress, had gained favor among the Austrasians, primarily
for his military prowess and ability to keep them well supplied with booty from his conquests.
Despite the efforts of Plectrude to silence her rival's child by imprisoning him, he became the sole
Mayor of the Palace and de facto ruler of Francia
Charles Martel (Martel means "the Hammer") was the son of Pippin of Herstal, Mayor of the Palace of
Austrasia
Charles Martel died on October 22, 741, at Quierzy in what is today the Aisne d’rtement in the Picardy
region of France. He was interred at Saint Denis Basilica in Paris, France. He was succeeded by his
sons, Carloman, Pepin the Short, and Grifo.
Carloman (716-754) was the son of Charles Martel, Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia and Chrotrud. He
was a member of the family later called the Carolingians and it can be argued that he was instrumental in
consolidating their power at the expense of the ruling Merovingian kings of the Franks.
Pepin III the Short- defeated the Lombards and gained land for the church
After Pepin's death in 768 AD, Carloman and his older brother Charles divided his kingdom. Upon
Carloman's death, his kingdom was absorbed into Charles', who then distributed portions to his own
sons.
Louis the Pious
In the Treaty of Verdun of 843 the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious divided his territories into
three kingdoms. The eldest son, Lothar, had waged war against his brothers since the death of their
father in 840. After his defeat at the Battle of Fontenay (841) and his brothers' alliance sealed in
the Oath of Strasbourg, Lothar was willing to negotiate.
Each of the brothers was already established in one kingdom - Lothar in Italy, Louis the German
in Bavaria, and Charles the Bald in Aquitaine. Lothar received the central portion of the empire –
what later became the Low Countries, Lorraine, Alsace, Burgundy, Provence, and Italy - and the
imperial title as an honor without more than nominal overlordship. Louis the German received
the eastern portion, much of what later became
Germany through the shape of the Holy Roman Empire. Charles the Bald received the western
portion, much of what later became France
Charles the Bald
Louis II
Charles II the Bald
Charles the Bald
Louis II
Carloman II
Charles II the Bald
Odo
Cahrles III the Simple- Brother of Carloman II
Aristocrat Charles Martel dominated the Frankish kingdom in 8th century
He confiscated land given to Church and began Church reforms that would restore
spirituality to clerical life
His son Pepin the Short continued Church reforms and eventually with the support of the
reformed Church, removed last Merovingian king from throne
Established the Carolingian dynasty, named to protect the papacy and establish the pope
and bishops are the makers of kings
Greatest legacy was Charles the Great, or Charlemagne
Charlemagne (Charles the Great) who was a military general and restored Pope Leo III
who had been exiled.
In return, Leo placed a crown on Charlemagne and named him the “Emperor of the
Romans” which secured the relationship between Frankish kings and the papacy
Charlemagne became the first ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, a dynasty that would last
for more than 700 years
Charlemagne- imposed order on empire through the Church and state
Ordered the standardization of Latin, textbooks, manuals for preaching, schools for clergy
and people, new form of handwriting
All these promoted education and scholars and produced a precise written language
(Latin)
New royal dynasty called Capetians in France
System of primogeniture= system where eldest son inherited everything (instead of
dividing land / property / wealth)
Lords and knights however had little loyalty and began competing more fiercely for
land, power, influence and control
Peace of God= a set of decrees issued in 989 CE that prohibited stealing church
property, assaulting clerics, peasants and women with the threat of
excommunication from Church
were set to protect the unarmed populace by limiting warfare in countryside
Truce of God= set in 1027 CE and outlawed all fighting from Thursday to Monday
morning, on important feast days and during religious days
Truce encouraged idea that the only combat pleasing to God was in the defense of
Christendom (idea of the righteousness of holy war)
1095 CE Pope Urban II referred to Truce of God when calling knights to the first
Crusade in support of Christians
Increasing violence and lawless countryside
Weak turn to the strong for protection, strong want something from the weak
Feudalism= relationship between those ranked in a chain of association (kings, vassals,
lords, knights, serfs)
Feudalism worked because of the notion of mutual obligation, or voluntary cooperation from serf to noble
A man’s word was the cornerstone of social life
Fief -land given by a lord in return for a vassal’s military service and oath of loyalty
Serfs- aka villeins or common peasants who worked the lords land
Tithe - tax that serfs paid (tax or rent)
Corvee- condition of unpaid labour by serfs (maintaining roads or ditches on a manor)
THE BUBONIC PLAGUE
• CALLED “BLACK DEATH” BECAUSE OF STRIKING SYMPTOM OF THE
DISEASE, IN WHICH SUFFERERS' SKIN WOULD BLACKEN DUE TO
HEMORRHAGES UNDER THE SKIN
• SPREAD BY FLEAS AND RATS
• PAINFUL LYMPH NODE SWELLINGS CALLED BUBOES
• BUBOES IN THE GROIN AND ARMPITS, WHICH OOZE PUS AND
BLOOD.
• DAMAGE TO THE SKIN AND UNDERLYING TISSUE UNTIL THEY WERE
COVERED IN DARK BLOTCHES
• MOST VICTIMS DIED WITHIN FOUR TO SEVEN DAYS AFTER
INFECTION
EFFECTS
• CAUSED MASSIVE DEPOPULATION AND CHANGE IN SOCIAL
STRUCTURE
• WEAKENED INFLUENCE OF CHURCH
• ORIGINATED IN ASIA BUT WAS BLAMED ON JEWS AND LEPERS
THE CRUSADES
CAUSES OF THE CRUSADES
• THE SELJUK TURKS GAINED CONTROL PF PALESTINE.
• THEY THREATENED THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE AND
THEY ASKED THE POPE URBAN II FOR HELP.
• URBAN LEARNED THAT CHRISTIAN PILGRIMS
HAD BEEN PERSECUTED BY THE TURKS.
• POPE URBAN WANTED TO GET PALESTINE BACK
FROM THE SELJUK.
• HE CALLED ON THE LORDS OF EUROPE TO
STOP THE FIGHT BETWEEN THEMSELVES AND
TO TAKE BACK THE HOLY LAND.
REASONS FOR GOING ON THE CRUSADES
• SOME WENT TO SAVE THEIR SOULS.
• THEY BELIEVED THAT IF THEY DIED WHILE
ON THE CRUSADE THEY WOULD GO TO
HEAVEN..
• SOME KNIGHTS WENT TO GAIN LAND AND
WEALTH.
• MERCHANTS SAW IT AS A CHANCE TO MAKE
MONEY.
THE FIRST CRUSADE
• LASTED FROM 1096 TO 1099.
• FRENCH AND ITALIAN LORDS LEAD ARMIES.
• THEY WERE POORLY PREPARED FOR THE TRIP.
• LITTLE FOOD, POOR SUPPLY LINES AND HOT WOOL
CLOTHES.
• THE CRUSADERS CAPTURED ANTIOCH AND
JERUSALEM.
• THE TURKS WERE FIGHTING AMONG THEMSELVES.
• THE CRUSADERS MASSACRED THE MUSLIM AND
JEWISH INHABITANTS IN JERUSALEM.
• FOUR SMALL STATES WERE SET UP AND FIEFS WERE
HANDED OUT.
• TRADE SPRANG UP BETWEEN EUROPE AND MIDDLE
EAST.
SECOND CRUSADE
• BY 1146 THE TURKS UNITED THEIR FORCES.
• THEY TOOK BACK MANY OF THE CITIES THAT
WERE CAPTURED.
• IN 1147, THE SECOND CRUSADE BEGAN.
• LEAD BY KING LOUIS VII OF FRANCE AND
GERMAN KING CONRAD III.
• AFTER TWO YEARS OF FIGHTING, THE TWO KINGS
FAILED TO RE-CAPTURE THE LAND TAKEN BY THE
TURKS.
THIRD CRUSADE
• FROM 1189 TO 1192, BARBAROSSA OF HRE, KING
PHILLIP OF FR. AND KING RICHARD OF ENG.
• BARBAROSSA DIED ON THE WAY DOWN.
• PHILLIP AND RICHARD FOUGHT OVER WHOSE
PLAN TO USE.
• PHILLIP WENT HOME AND RICHARD STAYED.
• DID NOT RE-CAPTURE JERUSALEM, SIGNED A
TREATY WITH SALADIN.
• ALLOWED CHRISTIANS TO ENTER JERUSALEM
FREELY.
THE FOURTH CRUSADE
• POPE INNOCENT III HAD FRENCH KNIGHT GATHERED
TO FIGHT.
• LEFT FOR HOLY LANDS IN 1202.
• 1204, THE CRUSADERS ATTACKED
CONSTANTINOPLE.
• TOOK ALL THAT WAS VALUABLE.
• THEY WERE INFLUENCED BY VENETIAN
TRADERS.
THE CHILDREN'S CRUSADE.
• IN 1212, YOUNG CHILDREN FROM ACROSS EUROPE
DECIDED TO MARCH TO THE HOLY LAND AND
RECAPTURE IT.
• THEY WERE LITTLE PREPARED FOR THE TRIP.
• WHEN THEY REACHED THE COAST. THEY
WERE MORE OF A HUNGRY MOB.
• POPE SENT MOST HOME
• OTHERS WERE TRICKED INTO BOAT THAT SOLD
THEM INTO SLAVERY.
THE RESULTS OF THE CRUSADES
• ALL OF THE CRUSADES FAILED EXCEPT FOR THE FIRST CRUSADE.
• WEAPONS --• THE CROSSBOW WAS UTILIZED. VERY POWERFUL BOW. REPLACED
TRADITIONAL BOW.
• POLITICAL CHANGES –
• MANY POWERFUL FEUDAL LORDS DIED IN CRUSADES.
• THIS HELPED THE KINGS TO BECOME STRONGER.
• THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH ALSO BECAME MORE POWERFUL.
• IDEAS AND TRADE –
• CRUSADERS EXCHANGED IDEAS WITH ONE ANOTHER AND THE
MUSLIMS.
• THESE IDEAS HELPED ENRICH EUROPE'S CULTURE.
• ITALIAN CITIES ALSO BECAME THE CENTER FOR TRADE WITH THE
MIDDLE EAST.

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