Merovingians Merovingian is derived from the leader of the tribe of Franks First dynasty after the Romans and ruled for 300 years Leader in 481 CE was Clovis I- he united Frankish tribes and expanded territory His conversion to Christianity won him support from the Church Merovingian's founded and built many monasteries, churches and palaces and spread Christianity throughout Western Europe IMPACT = Eventually dynasty declined as kings relaxed power and became more like figure heads whereas the real power lay with the powerful officials and leading aristocracy Saint Pepin of Landen, also known as Pepin the Elder was the Mayor of the Palace of the Austrasia under Merovingian kings Pepin II He was the grandson of Pippin the Elder. Around 670, Pippin II married Plectrude for her inheritance of substantial estates in the Moselle region. They produced at least two children and through them at least two significant grandchildren. These legitimate children and grandchildren claimed themselves to be Pepin's true successors and with the help of his widow Plectrude tried to maintain the position of Mayor of the Palace after Pepin II’s death on December 16, 714. Charles Martel, Pippin's son by his mistress, had gained favor among the Austrasians, primarily for his military prowess and ability to keep them well supplied with booty from his conquests. Despite the efforts of Plectrude to silence her rival's child by imprisoning him, he became the sole Mayor of the Palace and de facto ruler of Francia Charles Martel (Martel means "the Hammer") was the son of Pippin of Herstal, Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia Charles Martel died on October 22, 741, at Quierzy in what is today the Aisne d’rtement in the Picardy region of France. He was interred at Saint Denis Basilica in Paris, France. He was succeeded by his sons, Carloman, Pepin the Short, and Grifo. Carloman (716-754) was the son of Charles Martel, Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia and Chrotrud. He was a member of the family later called the Carolingians and it can be argued that he was instrumental in consolidating their power at the expense of the ruling Merovingian kings of the Franks. Pepin III the Short- defeated the Lombards and gained land for the church After Pepin's death in 768 AD, Carloman and his older brother Charles divided his kingdom. Upon Carloman's death, his kingdom was absorbed into Charles', who then distributed portions to his own sons. Louis the Pious In the Treaty of Verdun of 843 the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious divided his territories into three kingdoms. The eldest son, Lothar, had waged war against his brothers since the death of their father in 840. After his defeat at the Battle of Fontenay (841) and his brothers' alliance sealed in the Oath of Strasbourg, Lothar was willing to negotiate. Each of the brothers was already established in one kingdom - Lothar in Italy, Louis the German in Bavaria, and Charles the Bald in Aquitaine. Lothar received the central portion of the empire – what later became the Low Countries, Lorraine, Alsace, Burgundy, Provence, and Italy - and the imperial title as an honor without more than nominal overlordship. Louis the German received the eastern portion, much of what later became Germany through the shape of the Holy Roman Empire. Charles the Bald received the western portion, much of what later became France Charles the Bald Louis II Charles II the Bald Charles the Bald Louis II Carloman II Charles II the Bald Odo Cahrles III the Simple- Brother of Carloman II Aristocrat Charles Martel dominated the Frankish kingdom in 8th century He confiscated land given to Church and began Church reforms that would restore spirituality to clerical life His son Pepin the Short continued Church reforms and eventually with the support of the reformed Church, removed last Merovingian king from throne Established the Carolingian dynasty, named to protect the papacy and establish the pope and bishops are the makers of kings Greatest legacy was Charles the Great, or Charlemagne Charlemagne (Charles the Great) who was a military general and restored Pope Leo III who had been exiled. In return, Leo placed a crown on Charlemagne and named him the “Emperor of the Romans” which secured the relationship between Frankish kings and the papacy Charlemagne became the first ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, a dynasty that would last for more than 700 years Charlemagne- imposed order on empire through the Church and state Ordered the standardization of Latin, textbooks, manuals for preaching, schools for clergy and people, new form of handwriting All these promoted education and scholars and produced a precise written language (Latin) New royal dynasty called Capetians in France System of primogeniture= system where eldest son inherited everything (instead of dividing land / property / wealth) Lords and knights however had little loyalty and began competing more fiercely for land, power, influence and control Peace of God= a set of decrees issued in 989 CE that prohibited stealing church property, assaulting clerics, peasants and women with the threat of excommunication from Church were set to protect the unarmed populace by limiting warfare in countryside Truce of God= set in 1027 CE and outlawed all fighting from Thursday to Monday morning, on important feast days and during religious days Truce encouraged idea that the only combat pleasing to God was in the defense of Christendom (idea of the righteousness of holy war) 1095 CE Pope Urban II referred to Truce of God when calling knights to the first Crusade in support of Christians Increasing violence and lawless countryside Weak turn to the strong for protection, strong want something from the weak Feudalism= relationship between those ranked in a chain of association (kings, vassals, lords, knights, serfs) Feudalism worked because of the notion of mutual obligation, or voluntary cooperation from serf to noble A man’s word was the cornerstone of social life Fief -land given by a lord in return for a vassal’s military service and oath of loyalty Serfs- aka villeins or common peasants who worked the lords land Tithe - tax that serfs paid (tax or rent) Corvee- condition of unpaid labour by serfs (maintaining roads or ditches on a manor) THE BUBONIC PLAGUE • CALLED “BLACK DEATH” BECAUSE OF STRIKING SYMPTOM OF THE DISEASE, IN WHICH SUFFERERS' SKIN WOULD BLACKEN DUE TO HEMORRHAGES UNDER THE SKIN • SPREAD BY FLEAS AND RATS • PAINFUL LYMPH NODE SWELLINGS CALLED BUBOES • BUBOES IN THE GROIN AND ARMPITS, WHICH OOZE PUS AND BLOOD. • DAMAGE TO THE SKIN AND UNDERLYING TISSUE UNTIL THEY WERE COVERED IN DARK BLOTCHES • MOST VICTIMS DIED WITHIN FOUR TO SEVEN DAYS AFTER INFECTION EFFECTS • CAUSED MASSIVE DEPOPULATION AND CHANGE IN SOCIAL STRUCTURE • WEAKENED INFLUENCE OF CHURCH • ORIGINATED IN ASIA BUT WAS BLAMED ON JEWS AND LEPERS THE CRUSADES CAUSES OF THE CRUSADES • THE SELJUK TURKS GAINED CONTROL PF PALESTINE. • THEY THREATENED THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE AND THEY ASKED THE POPE URBAN II FOR HELP. • URBAN LEARNED THAT CHRISTIAN PILGRIMS HAD BEEN PERSECUTED BY THE TURKS. • POPE URBAN WANTED TO GET PALESTINE BACK FROM THE SELJUK. • HE CALLED ON THE LORDS OF EUROPE TO STOP THE FIGHT BETWEEN THEMSELVES AND TO TAKE BACK THE HOLY LAND. REASONS FOR GOING ON THE CRUSADES • SOME WENT TO SAVE THEIR SOULS. • THEY BELIEVED THAT IF THEY DIED WHILE ON THE CRUSADE THEY WOULD GO TO HEAVEN.. • SOME KNIGHTS WENT TO GAIN LAND AND WEALTH. • MERCHANTS SAW IT AS A CHANCE TO MAKE MONEY. THE FIRST CRUSADE • LASTED FROM 1096 TO 1099. • FRENCH AND ITALIAN LORDS LEAD ARMIES. • THEY WERE POORLY PREPARED FOR THE TRIP. • LITTLE FOOD, POOR SUPPLY LINES AND HOT WOOL CLOTHES. • THE CRUSADERS CAPTURED ANTIOCH AND JERUSALEM. • THE TURKS WERE FIGHTING AMONG THEMSELVES. • THE CRUSADERS MASSACRED THE MUSLIM AND JEWISH INHABITANTS IN JERUSALEM. • FOUR SMALL STATES WERE SET UP AND FIEFS WERE HANDED OUT. • TRADE SPRANG UP BETWEEN EUROPE AND MIDDLE EAST. SECOND CRUSADE • BY 1146 THE TURKS UNITED THEIR FORCES. • THEY TOOK BACK MANY OF THE CITIES THAT WERE CAPTURED. • IN 1147, THE SECOND CRUSADE BEGAN. • LEAD BY KING LOUIS VII OF FRANCE AND GERMAN KING CONRAD III. • AFTER TWO YEARS OF FIGHTING, THE TWO KINGS FAILED TO RE-CAPTURE THE LAND TAKEN BY THE TURKS. THIRD CRUSADE • FROM 1189 TO 1192, BARBAROSSA OF HRE, KING PHILLIP OF FR. AND KING RICHARD OF ENG. • BARBAROSSA DIED ON THE WAY DOWN. • PHILLIP AND RICHARD FOUGHT OVER WHOSE PLAN TO USE. • PHILLIP WENT HOME AND RICHARD STAYED. • DID NOT RE-CAPTURE JERUSALEM, SIGNED A TREATY WITH SALADIN. • ALLOWED CHRISTIANS TO ENTER JERUSALEM FREELY. THE FOURTH CRUSADE • POPE INNOCENT III HAD FRENCH KNIGHT GATHERED TO FIGHT. • LEFT FOR HOLY LANDS IN 1202. • 1204, THE CRUSADERS ATTACKED CONSTANTINOPLE. • TOOK ALL THAT WAS VALUABLE. • THEY WERE INFLUENCED BY VENETIAN TRADERS. THE CHILDREN'S CRUSADE. • IN 1212, YOUNG CHILDREN FROM ACROSS EUROPE DECIDED TO MARCH TO THE HOLY LAND AND RECAPTURE IT. • THEY WERE LITTLE PREPARED FOR THE TRIP. • WHEN THEY REACHED THE COAST. THEY WERE MORE OF A HUNGRY MOB. • POPE SENT MOST HOME • OTHERS WERE TRICKED INTO BOAT THAT SOLD THEM INTO SLAVERY. THE RESULTS OF THE CRUSADES • ALL OF THE CRUSADES FAILED EXCEPT FOR THE FIRST CRUSADE. • WEAPONS --• THE CROSSBOW WAS UTILIZED. VERY POWERFUL BOW. REPLACED TRADITIONAL BOW. • POLITICAL CHANGES – • MANY POWERFUL FEUDAL LORDS DIED IN CRUSADES. • THIS HELPED THE KINGS TO BECOME STRONGER. • THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH ALSO BECAME MORE POWERFUL. • IDEAS AND TRADE – • CRUSADERS EXCHANGED IDEAS WITH ONE ANOTHER AND THE MUSLIMS. • THESE IDEAS HELPED ENRICH EUROPE'S CULTURE. • ITALIAN CITIES ALSO BECAME THE CENTER FOR TRADE WITH THE MIDDLE EAST.