Welding Bolting

Report
Structural
Frame
Erection
1
Lecture Objectives and Materials
 Structural frames may be constructed
out of
1. Reinforced in-situ concrete
2. Steelwork
3. Pre-cast concrete
 The Objective of the lecture is to identify the
construction features associated with these
materials and their jointing methods.
2
Bank of America, Dallas, USA
72 story, 281M
3
Taipei 101, Taiwan
101 floors, 508M, 2004
4
Frame Considerations
 Conceptual
Speed of construction
Weight
Prefabricated
Accurate
 Design
Early design decisions
5
The
Building
Frame
6
Beam / column connection
7
Types
of
Columns
8
Types of beams
9
Column base plate
10
Connection between steel
column and concrete base
11
Column
to Beam
Connections
12
Effect of Connection on Beam
Depth
13
Floor
Beam
Arrangement
14
Flooring systems
15
Services Co-ordination
16
Structural
Bracing
for
Steelwork
Frames
17
Bank of America, Dallas, USA
72 story, 281M
18
Composite Frame Components
19
Diaphragm Floor Slabs
20
Precast Column / Column Joints
21
Precast
Column
/ Beam
Joints
22
Precast Shear Walls
23
COST = Material + Fabrication + Erection


Frame type
Simple frame
Rigid Frame
More material
Less fabrication
Less erection effort
Less material
More Fabrication
More effort
Connection type
Welding
Bolting
Slow
Temp. erection aids
Environmental Control
More access required
Compact joint
Continuous
Fast
Self constructing
All weather
Less access
Bulky joint
Simple
24
Design Aspects

Total building aim:
Speed
Cost effective
Accuracy

Encourages:
Prefabrication
Repetition
Standardisation
Integration of ALL aspects such as structure, cladding,
finishes & services
25
Material Choice can affect
Foundations
26
Construction & Buildability
No scaffolding
 Limit number of elements
 Weight within craneage limits
 Length within transportation limits
 Bolted connections
 Braced bay frames
 Prefabricated stairs
 Compatible detailing, cladding, services & finishes

27
Typical Construction Programme
28
29
Safety Considerations
 Main problem is working at heights
Steel erectors to wear harnesses
All ‘drop’ edges must be adequately fenced
Toe boards to all ‘drop’ edges
Protective cover to all ground level walkways
Safe access for labour and materials
Windproofing on exposed floors
30
Conclusions
 Structural frames may be of in-situ concrete, pre-
cast concrete, steelwork or a mixture.
 Choice of frame may affect foundations
 Flooring systems may be in-situ concrete or precast concrete or a mixture.
 Frame jointing may be fixed or simple – this
affects depth of beams.
 Usual to design / detail for buildability
 Must design for stability during construction
31

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