Potentially Hazardous Foods

Report
HACCP in SC Schools
Training for Foodservice Workers
Updated: February 2011
Prepared by:
Angela Fraser, Ph.D., Food Safety Specialist
Amanda Henderson, Nutrition and Dietetics Student
Clemson University, SC
Gregg Ferguson, MBA, Education Associate
SC Department of Education
Pam Vaughan, Child Nutrition Director
Darlington County Schools, SC
© 2010 Clemson University. These materials are protected by United States copyright law and may not
be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, displayed or published without the express prior written
permission of Clemson University.
The Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service offers its programs to people of all ages,
regardless of race, color, sex, religion, national origin, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation,
marital or family status and is an equal opportunity employer.
2
Foodborne illness
Foodborne illness
– Caused by eating contaminated food or
drink.
Each year there are:
– 48 million Americans (1 in 6) who get sick,
– 128,000 who are hospitalized, and
– 3,000 who die from foodborne illness.
Introduction
3
What foods cause foodborne illness?
• Any food that is
prepared and served in
schools can cause
foodborne illness if not
handled safely.
• Safely handle food from
the time it is received
until the time it is
served.
Introduction
4
Unsafe Food Handling Practices
• Using food from unsafe • Improperly cleaning
(unapproved) sources.
and sanitizing
equipment after it has
• Not cooking foods to
become contaminated.
temperatures noted on
the standardized
• Not properly washing
recipes.
hands when handling
food.
• Holding foods at
unsafe temperatures for • Handling food while
more than four hours.
sick.
Introduction
5
Potentially Hazardous Foods
• Potentially hazardous foods must be held at 41oF
or colder or 135oF or hotter.
• They will be labeled:
– No cook
– Same day
– Complex
• Foods that are labeled Non-Potentially Hazardous
do not need to be kept a temperature control.
Introduction
6
The Safe Operator
7
Reporting Foodborne Illness
If you have any one of these symptoms, tell
your manager before reporting to work:
• Diarrhea
• Vomiting
• Fever
• Sore throat with fever
• Jaundice
The Safe Operator
8
Reporting Foodborne Illness
If a health care professional
has told you that you have a
foodborne illness caused by
one of the following, tell your
manager immediately:
•
•
•
•
•
Hepatitis A virus
Norovirus
E. coli 0157:H7
Salmonella Typhi
Shigella spp.
The Safe Operator
9
Basics of Handwashing
1. Wet your hands with warm water.
2. Put enough liquid, powder, or bar
soap on your hands to create a lather;
it does not have to be antibacterial.
3. Scrub for at least 15 seconds—rub
palms, between fingers, and around
nails.
4. Rinse thoroughly under warm water.
5. Dry your hands with disposable
towels (preferred) or a hand dryer.
6. Instant hand antiseptic is not required
The Safe Operator
10
Demonstration
Glo-Germ
11
Always wash your hands:
• When switching from
raw to ready-to-eat food.
• After handling garbage.
• After touching your cell
phone or handling other
personal belongings.
• After using the bathroom.
• After coughing, sneezing,
smoking, eating, or
drinking.
• After touching face or hair.
• After handling dirty
equipment or utensils.
When else should you wash your hands?
The Safe Operator
12
Fingernails
• Fingernails (real or artificial) and nail polish
can be physical hazards.
• Keep nails trimmed and filed.
• Workers cannot wear fingernail polish or false
fingernails.
The Safe Operator
13
Cover cuts, wounds, and sores
• Do not handle food if you
have a sore that has pus or
is infected unless it is
bandaged and covered.
• Cover affected area with a
bandage, a finger cot, and
then cover with a nonlatex, single-use glove.
The Safe Operator
14
Bare-hand Contact
• No bare-hand contact of exposed
ready-to-eat food.
• Ready-to-eat food (RTE) includes:
– Cooked food
– Raw fruits and vegetables
– Baked goods
– Canned food
– Snack foods
– Beverages
• Alternatives to no bare-hand contact
– Single-use gloves
– Utensils
– Deli wraps
The Safe Operator
15
When Can You Use Bare Hands?
There are times when you can touch food with your
bare hands, such as when:
–
–
–
–
Handling raw foods before they are cooked.
Capping containers of food.
Pinching rolls.
Restocking and stocking packaged foods.
When else can you touch foods with bare hands?
The Safe Operator
Single-use Gloves
• Single-use gloves are an
alternative to bare hand
contact.
• Wear non-latex gloves
because latex gloves might
cause an allergic reaction in
some workers.
The Safe Operator
17
Changing Gloves
• Change gloves:
–
–
–
–
when they tear;
when you handle a different food
when you touch a dirty surface;
when going from a nonfood preparation task to a food preparation
task,
– after cleaning tables, scraping, or washing dirty dishes and utensils,
– after four hours of constant use with the same type of food item.
• Once you take them off, throw them out – never reuse
single-use gloves.
The Safe Operator
18
Examples of Single-Use Gloves
• Do you wash your hands before putting on gloves?
• How do you remove your gloves?
• Where do you store your gloves?
The Safe Operator
19
Demonstration
Taking Off Single-use Gloves
20
Clothes
• Your clothes can
contaminate food so wear:
– clean clothes – if wearing
long sleeves pull up to threequarter length
– District-approved hair
restraint
• It is best to change into
your uniform shirt when
you get to work.
The Safe Operator
21
Jewelry
While preparing food, never
wear jewelry on your
forearms and hands.
– This includes medical
information jewelry and
watches.
– The only exception is a plain
wedding band.
Follow your District’s policy
for wearing other jewelry.
The Safe Operator
22
Other Policies
• When handling food, never
smoke, chew gum, or eat
food
• You can drink from a
covered container with a
straw, a small-neck bottle,
or a can.
• Store all drinks away from
food preparation/service
areas.
The Safe Operator
23
Activity
The Safe Operator -- Right or Wrong?
24
Right or Wrong?
The Safe Operator
25
Right or Wrong?
The Safe Operator
26
Right or Wrong?
The Safe Operator
27
Thermometers
28
How do you use these thermometers?
Thermometers
29
Which is the best way to store
your food thermometers?
Where do you store food thermometers at
your school?
Thermometers
Checking the Accuracy of Food
Thermometers
• Check the accuracy of all
metal-stem food
thermometers:
‾ first thing in the morning
and
‾ every time the
thermometer is dropped.
• Use the ice-point method
to check accuracy.
• If not correct, calibrate.
Thermometers
31
Ice-Point Method Steps
• Fill large container with crushed ice. If only cube ice is
available, crush it.
• Add clean tap water until the container is full.
• Place thermometer into water so sensing area is completely
covered.
• Wait thirty seconds until you have a stable reading.
• If you need to calibrate, hold calibration nut securely with
a wrench or other tool.
• Thermometer must read 32oF.
Thermometers
32
Demonstration
Calibrating a Food Thermometer
33
Digital Thermometers
• Most digital and
thermocouples cannot be
calibrated in-house.
– If your digital thermometer
is off more than 2oF, throw
it out.
– Return thermocouples to
manufacturer for
recalibration.
Thermometers
34
Temperature Calibration Log
Introduction
35
Hot-holding Temperatures
• Hot-holding cabinet must be at least 150oF
before any food placed inside.
– Maintaining foods at 180oF results in dry foods and
wastes energy.
– Proofing cabinets cannot be used for holding foods.
• At a minimum, periodically check the serving
line temperatures for quality but not for safety.
Equipment
36
Receiving
37
Inspect before You Accept
• Spot check delivery
vehicles to be sure
they are clean.
• Use an infrared
thermometer to check
the surface
temperature of
potentially hazardous
foods.
Receiving
38
Monitoring during Receiving
Receiving
Accepting Cans
•
•
•
•
No swollen ends, leaks, rusts or dents
Label can be read and is attached to product
No signs of tampering or counterfeiting
Not past the date stamped on the label
Receiving
40
Are these acceptable?
Receiving
41
Storage
42
Temperature of Storage Units
Refrigeration
– Must keep food at 41oF or colder
– Air temperature should be 39oF or colder
Freezer
– Must keep food at 0oF or colder
– Air temperature should be 0oF or colder
Dry storage
– Best if temperature is between 50oF and 70oF
– Humidity level should be between 50% and 60%
Storage
43
Monitoring Equipment
Temperatures
• Daily -- Refrigerator
Inspection
• Daily -- Freezer
Inspection
• Daily – Hot-holding
Unit
• Daily -- Storeroom
Storage
44
Demonstration
Practice Recording Information on
Storage Equipment Forms
Storage
First In, First Out (FIFO)
• Past-dated foods will lose their quality
and sometimes become unsafe.
• FIFO ensures proper rotation of foods in
storage.
• When foods are received, put the oldest
in the front and the newest in the back.
Storage
46
How to Label
• Dry storage:
– Write month, day, and
year on the package
with a dark permanent
marker
– Example: 8/11/09,
which means August
11, 2009.
Storage
47
How To Label
• Refrigerator and
Freezer Storage:
– Write month, day and
year on the package
with a dark permanent
maker
– Example:8/31/09,
which means August
31, 2009
Storage
48
Cross-contamination in Storage
• Bacteria can be transferred from
one food to another if food is
not properly stored.
• Properly cover foods. Do not
cover hot food while it is being
cooled.
• Store raw food below cooked or
ready-to-eat food.
Storage
49
Storage Containers
• Food that is removed from its
original package must be stored
in a durable storage container.
• All containers must be foodgrade.
– No bread bags or used glass jars
– What other containers cannot be
used for food storage?
• Label the side of the container
with the name of the food.
Storage
50
Activity
Storage – Right or Wrong?
51
Storage – Right or Wrong?
Storage
52
Storage – Right or Wrong?
Storage
53
Storage – Right or Wrong?
Storage
54
Preparation
55
Thawing
• Improperly thawed food can support the
growth of bacteria.
• Safe methods of thawing are:
–
–
–
–
in the refrigerator (best way)
during cooking (good way)
In a microwave oven
Under cold running water
Preparation
56
Washing Produce
• Put all uncut produce in a clean colander before
washing in the sink.
• Wash under lukewarm water before:
–
–
–
–
cutting
combining with other ingredients
cooking
offering for immediate consumption
• After washing, store at 41oF or colder for best
quality.
Preparation
57
Cooling – Room Temperature
Foods
• Some potentially hazardous foods are made from
ingredients that are stored at room temperature.
These foods are not cooked but require cooling
after preparation.
• Examples of menu items include:
– Tuna salad
– Chicken salad
– Melons
• Refrigerate all ingredients the day before you
assemble them.
Preparation
58
Cooking Temperatures
• Cook all potentially hazardous foods to the
temperature noted on the standardized recipe or
procedure.
• Cooking is a critical control point (CCP) for all
menu items labeled “Same Day” or “Complex.”
• Commercially processed foods that are labeled
“fully cooked” only need to be cooked to 135oF or
hotter. k
Preparation
59
Standardized Recipe
Preparation
60
Sensing Areas of Thermometers
Metal-stem Thermometer
Digital Thermometer
Preparation
61
Measuring Cooked Food Temperatures
• Remove thermometer from its case and sanitize
before taking the first temperature.
• Sanitize by:
– Using an alcohol swab or
– Immersing in a sanitizing solution
• Insert sensing portion of thermometer into product at
two different places in the middle of the pan.
• Always clean the probe after taking both temperatures
by wiping off with a clean paper towel.
• Sanitize before putting thermometer back into its case.
Preparation
62
Demonstration
Cleaning and Sanitizing
Thermometer Probe before Use
Preparation
63
Measuring Cooking Temperatures
• Batch cooking – cooking an amount of food in the same
equipment at one time:
–
–
–
–
–
Steamer
Ovens, including combination ovens and pizza ovens
Kettles and braising pans
Fryers
Ranges/stovetop
• Batch cooking – chicken nuggets
– Measure temperature of each batch at two points.
– Record the lowest temperature of the first batch on the Daily
Production Record.
Preparation
64
Measuring Cooking Temperatures
• Cook all at once – lasagna
• Measure temperature in the middle of each pan.
• Record lowest temperature on the Daily Production
Record.
• Liquids -- chili
• Stir food thoroughly.
• Measure temperature at two points in the middle of the
pan.
• Record lowest temperature on the Daily Production
Record.
Preparation
How to Take Food Temperatures
Preparation
Recording Cooked Food
Temperatures
1. Record the lowest
safe temperature of
the first batch on the
Daily Production
Record.
2. Temp all batches as
they are removed
from temperature
control but do not
record.
Preparation
67
Thermometer Sleeves
• Never put a dirty thermometer back in to its
sleeve.
• The inside of the sleeve can become contaminated
and they are very difficult to clean and sanitize.
• If they become contaminated, you must clean by
immersing in the three-compartment sink and then
immersing in sanitizing solution.
Preparation
Leftovers
• Temperature must be 135oF or hotter, or 410F or
colder to be a safe leftover.
• Leftovers on a self-service bar and not packaged
must be thrown out.
• Leftovers on the serving line are refrigerated and
thrown out in 3 days.
• Leftovers that have been prepared but not placed
on a serving line can be frozen for up to one menu
cycle or 30 days, whichever comes first.
Preparation
69
Where Record on Production
Record
Cooling Leftovers
Preparation
71
Cooling Complex Foods
• Examples of “Complex Foods” include:
– Pork roast
– Turkey roast
• The temperature of foods labeled “Complex
Foods” must be checked every hour during
cooling.
• The temperature must be recorded on the
Complex Cooling Log.
Preparation
72
Complex Cooling Log
Preparation
Storage of Leftovers
• The temperature of leftovers
cannot be monitored properly
so limit the amount of
leftovers.
• Cover leftovers and label
with the food name and date
of preparation.
• Check temperature before
leaving and write the
temperature and time on the
label.
Preparation
74
Reheating Foods
• Reheat all food that has been cooked in house and
then cooled to at least 165oF for 15 seconds.
• The total time to reheat a food must not be more
than two hours.
• After second reheat, the remaining food must be
thrown out.
• If you throw out foods, record this on the Daily
Production Record under comments.
Preparation
75
Service
76
Holding Temperatures during
Serving
• Keep food at proper
temperatures:
– Cold-holding – 41oF or
colder
– Hot-holding – 135oF or
hotter
• Check temperature before
placing any new food on
the serving line.
Service
77
Re-serving Food
• Once food touches a
student's tray it has been
served.
• Only packaged foods can
be re-served, such as:
– packaged cookies
– cartons of milk
– ice cream bars
– juice boxes.
Service
78
Re-serving Food
• If a student places a packaged food on his or her
tray but cannot pay for it, the food can be
recovered by the cashier and re-served.
• If a student pays for the item, leaves the serving
line, and then wants to return the item, it can not
be re-served. It must be thrown out.
Service
79
Salad Bars
• All unpackaged foods on a
self-service salad bar must
be thrown out at the end of
service.
• Packaged foods can be reserved if they are at proper
temperatures.
• To minimize waste, put
smaller amounts on the
salad bar.
Service
80
Cleaning and Sanitizing
81
Cleaning and Sanitizing
• Cleaning -- removing
food and dirt from a
surface.
• Sanitizing – decreasing
the number of
microorganisms that are
on a properly cleaned
surface to a level that
will not make one sick.
Cleaning and Sanitizing
82
High-temperature Dishmachines
• Final sanitizing rinse must
be 180oF or hotter
• Measure water temperature
at the manifold.
• Record your observation on
Daily Operation
Inspection form.
Cleaning and Sanitizing
83
Daily Operation Inspection
Three-compartment sink
1. Wash -- Water temperature
at least 110oF
2. Rinse -- Water temperature
at least 110oF
3. Sanitize -- cool to lukewarm
water if using chemicals – 75 to
120oF --
4. Air-dry -- Do not hand dry.
Dry on shelves 6 inches off
of the floor.
Never mix chemical sanitizers
with washing water detergents
Cleaning and Sanitizing
85
Measuring Sanitizer Strength
• A test kit that accurately
measures the concentration
of sanitizing solutions must
be available.
• The strength of sanitizing
solutions must be measured
frequently during the day.
• Record reading on the
Daily Operation
Inspection form.
Cleaning and Sanitizing
86
Food-Contact Surface
• All food-contact surface must cleaned and
sanitized after becoming contaminated.
• Examples include:
–
–
–
–
–
–
utensils,
cutting
boards,
slicers,
countertops,
refrigerator shelves
Cleaning and Sanitizing
87
Cleaning Food-Contact Surfaces
Immersion
– Wash with dish
detergent.
– Rinse thoroughly.
– Immerse in a properly
prepared sanitizing
solution.
Cleaning and Sanitizing
88
In-place Sanitizing
• All food contact surfaces that cannot be removed
are washed and rinsed.
• Spray or wipe surfaces properly with a prepared
sanitizing solution.
• All parts are air-dried the reassembled.
• Food contact surfaces touched with bare-hands
during reassembly must be sanitized again.
Cleaning and Sanitizing
89
Cleaning Non-Food Contact Surfaces
• Non-food contact surfaces:
– exterior of refrigerator,
stovetops, and
refrigerator gaskets.
• Wash with detergent and
rinse but do not need to
sanitize.
• Keep free of dirt, dust, and
debris.
Cleaning and Sanitizing
90
Storing Cleaned and Sanitized Items
• Store in a clean, dry
location
• Not exposed to splash,
dust, or other
contamination
• At least 6 inches above the
floor
• In a self-draining position
• Covered or inverted
Cleaning and Sanitizing
91
Chemicals
• Store separate from food,
equipment, utensils, linen,
and single-service and
single-use items.
• If removed from their
original package, label the
container in which they are
stored. Do not label lids.
• Mark chemicals with an
“X” to help those who
cannot read.
Cleaning and Sanitizing
92
Material Safety Data Sheets
• OSHA requires a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for
all chemicals.
• On every MSDS, be familiar with the following sections:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
4.0 Fire and explosion data
5.0 Reactivity data
6.0 Spill or leak procedures
7.0 Health hazard data
8.0 First aid
9.0 Protective measures
10.0 Additional information/precautions
• Highlight important information on the MSDS.
Cleaning and Sanitizing
93
Material Safety Data Sheet
Product Name
Emergency Contact
Information
Chemical
Ingredient
List
First Aid Procedures
PPE
Cleaning and Sanitizing
94
The End!
Thank you. Questions?
95

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