Chapter 2 Supply chain performance: achieving strategic fit and scope

Report
2
Supply Chain
Performance:
Achieving
Strategic Fit
and Scope
PowerPoint presentation to accompany
Chopra and Meindl Supply Chain Management, 5e
Global Edition
Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education.
© 2012 Prentice Hall Inc.
1
1-1
2-1
The Value Chain
2-2
價值鏈
2-3
Competitive and Supply
Chain Strategies





Competitive strategy defines the set of customer needs a
firm seeks to satisfy through its products and services
Product development strategy specifies the portfolio of
new products that the company will try to develop
Marketing and sales strategy specifies how the market
will be segmented and product positioned, priced, and
promoted
Supply chain strategy determines the nature of material
procurement, transportation of materials, manufacture of
product or creation of service, distribution of product
All functional strategies must support one another and
the competitive strategy
2-4
競爭與供應鏈策略




競爭策略:定義透過產品和服務試圖滿足顧客需求
的彙總
產品發展策略:指一家公司欲開發新產品的組合
行銷與銷售策略:指市場如何區隔以及產品如何定
位、定價與促銷
供應鏈策略:


決定原物料採購、廠商間的物料運輸、產品的製造與
生產以提供服務、產品配送至顧客及後續服務
供應鏈策略、 競爭策略和其他功能性策略之間的協
調與支援很重要
2-5
How is Strategic Fit
Achieved?
1. Understanding the customer and
supply chain uncertainty
2. Understanding the supply chain
capabilities
3. Achieving strategic fit
2-6
如何達成策略契合度?

步驟一:瞭解顧客與供應鏈的不確定

步驟二:瞭解供應鏈的能力

步驟三:達成策略契合度
2-7
Step 1: Understanding the
Customer and Supply Chain
Uncertainty






Quantity of product needed in each lot
Response time customers are willing to
tolerate
Variety of products needed
Service level required
Price of the product
Desired rate of innovation in the product
2-8
步驟一:瞭解顧客與供應鏈
的不確定

每批產品需求數量

顧客願意忍受的回應時間

產品多樣化的需求

服務水準要求

產品價格

產品創新的要求
2-9
Customer Needs and
Implied Demand Uncertainty
Customer Need
Causes Implied Demand Uncertainty to …
Range of quantity required
increases
Increase because a wider range of the quantity
required implies greater variance in demand
Lead time decreases
Increase because there is less time in which to
react to orders
Variety of products required
increases
Increase because demand per product becomes
more disaggregate
Number of channels through
which product may be acquired
increases
Increase because the total customer demand is
now disaggregated over more channels
Rate of innovation increases
Increase because new products tend to have more
uncertain demand
Required service level increases
Increase because the firm now has to handle
unusual surges in demand
2-10
顧客需求與隱含需求不確定
2-11
Levels of Implied Demand
Uncertainty
2-12
隱含不確定的程度
2-13
Step 2: Understanding Supply
Chain Capabilities


How does the firm best meet demand?
Supply chain responsiveness is the ability
to






Respond to wide ranges of quantities
demanded
Meet short lead times
Handle a large variety of products
Build highly innovative products
Meet a very high service level
Handle supply uncertainty
2-14
步驟二:瞭解供應鏈


廠商如何完全滿足需求?
瞭解本身供應鏈回應性能力,包括:

回應需求數量的廣大範圍

符合短前置時間

處理產品的多樣化

建立高度創新性產品

符合高度服務水準

處理供應的不確定性
2-15
Cost-Responsiveness
Efficient Frontier
2-16
成本反應效率曲線
2-17
Responsiveness Spectrum
2-18
回應性的尺度表
2-19
Step 3: Achieving Strategic
Fit



Ensure that the degree of supply chain
responsiveness is consistent with the
implied uncertainty
Assign roles to different stages of the
supply chain that ensure the appropriate
level of responsiveness
Ensure that all functions maintain
consistent strategies that support the
competitive strategy
2-20
Zone of Strategic Fit
2-21
策略契合度區域
2-22
Roles and Allocations
2-23
Efficient and Responsive Supply
Chains
Efficient Supply Chains
Responsive Supply Chains
Primary goal
Supply demand at the lowest
cost
Respond quickly to demand
Product design
strategy
Maximize performance at a
minimum product cost
Create modularity to allow
postponement of product
differentiation
Pricing strategy
Lower margins because price is
a prime customer driver
Higher margins because price is
not a prime customer driver
Manufacturing
strategy
Lower costs through high
utilization
Maintain capacity flexibility to
buffer against demand/supply
uncertainty
Inventory
strategy
Minimize inventory to lower cost
Maintain buffer inventory to deal
with demand/supply uncertainty
Lead-time
strategy
Reduce, but not at the expense
of costs
Reduce aggressively, even if the
costs are significant
Supplier
strategy
Select based on cost and quality
Select based on speed,
flexibility, reliability, and quality
2-24
比較效率性和回應性供應鏈
2-25
Changes Over Product
Life Cycle

Beginning stages
1.
2.
3.
4.
Demand is very uncertain, and supply may
be unpredictable
Margins are often high, and time is crucial to
gaining sales
Product availability is crucial to capturing
the market
Cost is often a secondary consideration
2-26
Changes Over Product
Life Cycle

Later stages
1.
2.
3.
Demand has become more certain, and
supply is predictable
Margins are lower as a result of an increase
in competitive pressure
Price becomes a significant factor in
customer choice
2-27
Different Scopes of Strategic Fit
Across a Supply Chain
2-28
供應鏈中不同的策略契合度
範疇
2-29
Drivers of Supply Chain
Performance
•
1. Facilities
–
•
2. Inventory
–
•
The physical locations in the supply chain
network where product is stored,
assembled, or fabricated
All raw materials, work in process, and
finished goods within a supply chain
3. Transportation
–
Moving inventory from point to point in the
supply chain
2-30
供應鏈績效的驅動因子

1. 設施
供應網路的實體位址
作為存貨儲存、組裝和製造的場所

2. 存貨
供應鏈間所有原物料、在製品和完成品

3. 運輸
承擔供應鏈中各點間的存貨搬運
2-31
Drivers of Supply Chain
Performance
•
4. Information
–
•
5. Sourcing

•
Data and analysis concerning facilities,
inventory, transportation, costs, prices, and
customers throughout the supply chain
In-house or outsource, Supplier selection,
Procurement
6. Pricing
–
How much a firm will charge for the goods and
services that it makes available in the supply
chain
2-32
供應鏈績效的驅動因子

4. 資訊
供應鏈有關設施、存貨、運輸、成本、價格
和顧客等資料之分析

5. 採購
決定了公司內部執行或外包,選擇供應商與
採購

6. 定價
決定公司在供應鏈中流通的貨品和服務價格
2-33
A
Framework
for
Structuring
SCM
Drivers
2-34
供應鏈決策架構
2-35
Challenges
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Increasing product variety and shrinking
life cycles
Globalization and increasing uncertainty
Fragmentation of supply chain ownership
Changing technology and business
environment
The environment and sustainability
2-36
挑戰

產品多樣性的增加與產品生命週期縮短

全球化與不確定性的增加

供應鏈所有權的分裂

科技與商業環境的變化

環境與永續
2-37

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