Neurons use impulses to relay messages from throughout the body What other means do humans have to provide communication within in the body The glands that secrete hormones are either endocrine glands exocrine glands . When imbalances in hormone levels occur, diseases or dysfunctions can result. excretes its essential product by way of a Duct to some environment external to itself, either inside the body or on a surface of the body. Sweat glands Salivary glands Mammary glands Pancreas Liver Endocrine glands release more than 20 major hormones directly into the bloodstream without the use of ducts or by diffusion into surrounding tissue where it affects the target cells http://kidshealth.org/teen/your_body/body_ basics/endocrine.html -Discusses the various glands and their functions Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Pineal body Thyroid Parathyroid Pancreas Adrenals Ovaries and Testes http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/ anatomyvideos/000048.htm Present in the brain and produces releasing hormones and inhibitory hormones and controls information to the pituitary a small pea sizes gland located in the center of the skull, acting as the Master Gland controlling Releases a number of hormone that activate other glands List some of them in Journal noted in this video Pituitary gland video medline plus A structure of the diencephalon produces several hormones including Melatonin to influence sleep-wake cycles and sexual development. Connects the endocrine system with the Nervous system by converting nerve signals from PNS to hormone signals Located in the neck , Secretes T3 and Thyroxine (T4) that regulates metabolism where food is broken down and converted to heat or energy Secretes Calcitonin that plays a role in calcium balance hypothalamus senses low levels of T3 and T4Sends message of Thyrotropin-releasing hormone(TRH) to Pituitary gland to produce TSH Pituitary send message to Thyroid of TSH Thyroid get message increases production and release of T3, T4 Blood levels rise. Hypothalamus receives Info of increase levels Communicates this to Pituitary Pituitary sends message to thyroid to slow production. CYCLE CONTINUES 4 pea-sized glands on the thyroid gland in the neck. name is similar to thyroid but glands are completely different. Produce parathyroid hormone (PTH), helps balance calcium and phosphorous. Which play an important role in muscle contraction and nerve impulse Long narrow gland located in the abdomen behind the stomach and in front of the spine Secretes insulin, glucagon to help regulate the body's use of sugar 2 small glands located on the top of each kidney SOME Hormones Released ARE corticosteroids- Cortisol and Catecholamine's such as dopamine, epinephrine to increase HR and BP during stress and norepinephrine Aldostrone that affects kidney function by controlling levels of salt and water in the blood Also small amounts of Androgens 2 lobes Lies in the lower part of the neck or upper chest behind the sternum Secretes thymus hormone which plays an important role in the immune system Testes Male sex glands that secrets androgens that contribute to production of sperm and the development of male characteristics Ovaries release hormone estrogen and contribute to the female characteristics and regulate menstrual cycle Once a hormone is secreted, it travels from the endocrine gland that produced it through the bloodstream to the cells designed to receive its message called target cells. target cells have receptors that latch onto only specific hormones, and that hormone will communicate only with the target cell that have receptors for that hormone When the hormone reaches its target cell, it locks onto the cell's specific receptors The hormone-receptor combinations transmit chemical instructions to the inner workings of the cell. Hormone receptors are found either exposed on the surface of the cell or within the cell, depending on the type of hormone. Three actions of hormones › Endocrine action: the hormone is distributed in blood and binds to distant target cells. › Paracrine action: the hormone acts locally by diffusing from its source to target cells in the neighborhood. › Autocrine action: the hormone acts on the same cell that produced it. When hormone levels reach a certain normal amount, the endocrine system helps the body to keep that level of hormone in the blood. Example, Thyroid Hormone Feedback Loop. Give examples of disorders involving hormones. › Hypothyroidism › Hyperthyroidism › Cushing's Syndrome › Addison’s disease › Growth Hormone Deficiency- GHD Thyroid does not produce enough thyroid hormone. Symptoms include: feeling tired and weak; cold intolerance; dry skin and brittle nails; and constipation. Can raise your cholesterol levels and can make you more likely to have a stroke or heart attack. It can be treated with thyroid hormone pills. Thyroid is producing too much thyroid hormone. Common symptoms include: excessive sweating; heat intolerance; increased bowel movements; nervousness or agitation; and weight loss with increased appetite. Treatments include antithyroid drugs; ablation with radioactive iodine; or surgery to partially remove the thyroid. Results from excessive production of Cortisol from adrenal gland . Can be the result of tumor or drug therapy. Symptoms include fat deposition in face and around shoulders. (Buffalo hump) Decreased Vit D activity=bone loss Emotional frailty. Hirsuitism-hair growth on face in females Result from a deficiency in Cortisol production. Can be genetic or the result of illness or injury. Symptoms include low blood pressure, muscle weakness, weight loss, and hyperpigmentation of skin. JFK suffered from this. Different effects depending on the age of onset. In infants and childrenhypoglycemia and growth failure. Rarely happens in adults, but may manifest as bone loss, loss of muscle mass and strength. Treated by intramuscular injections of HGH Gary Coleman Little Rascals and Different Strokes and more Use Inspiration to create a concept map for Chemical Communication describing the basic mechanism of hormone action in the human body. Share concept maps with class (1) A loop system in which the system responds to perturbation either in the same direction (positive feedback) or in the opposite direction (negative feedback). (2) A process in which the level of one substance influences the level of another substance. (3) A mechanism or a signal that tends to initiate (or accelerate) or to inhibit (or slow down) a process. https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=pla yer_detailpage&v=_QbD92p_EVs -feedback loop 2. How do hormones interact with target cells? 3. What are examples of endocrine glands and exocrine glands in the human body? 4. How do feedback loops help regulate the action of hormones? 5. How can too little or too much of a hormone lead to disease? Activity 2.3.2 Part 1 only Need: › White Poster Board › Markers What are his Symptoms What organs and glands are effected When your team thinks they have the correct diagnosis- Get Part 2 from your teacher Build the Pituitary Gland on your Manikin What is the connection between the Pituitary Gland and the Hypothalamus Build the Thyroid Gland on your Manikin The hypothalamus is part of the brain that lies just above the pituitary gland. It releases hormones that start and stop the release of pituitary hormones. The hypothalamus controls hormone production in the pituitary gland through several "releasing" hormones. It functions in maintaining homeostasis, especially in coordinating the endocrine and nervous systems; secretes hormones of the posterior pituitary and releasing factors, which regulate the anterior pituitary. These include: › Growth hormone-releasing hormone, or GHRH (controls GH release) › Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, or TRH (controls TSH release) › Corticoptropin-releasing hormone, or CRH (controls ACTH release) › Another hormone made by the hypothalamus is gonadotropinreleasing hormone (GnRH). It tells the pituitary gland to make luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH), which are important for normal puberty and reproduction. The pituitary gland is sometimes called the "master gland" because of its great influence on the other body organs. Its function is complex and important for overall well-being. It produces hormones that act directly on the body and that stimulate other endocrine glands to produce their own hormones. The anterior pituitary (the front part of the pituitary) produces several types of hormones: Prolactin: stimulates milk production from a woman's breasts after childbirth. In pregnant and breastfeeding women, prolactin helps prevent ovulation (the release of eggs from the ovaries). Growth hormone (GH): GH stimulates growth in childhood and is important for maintaining a healthy body composition. In adults it is also important for maintaining muscle mass and bone mass. GH also affects fat distribution in the body. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH): ACTH stimulates production of cortisol by the adrenal glands. Cortisol, a so-called "stress hormone," is vital to survival. It helps maintain blood pressure and blood glucose levels, among other effects. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to make thyroid hormones, which, in turn, control (regulate) the body's metabolism, energy, growth and development, and nervous system activity. Luteinizing hormone (LH): LH regulates testosterone in men and estrogen in women. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH): FSH stimulates the ovaries to release eggs (ovulate) in women. LH and FSH work together to allow normal function of the ovaries or testes, including sperm production. The posterior pituitary (back part of the pituitary) produces two hormones: Oxytocin: Oxytocin causes milk to be released in nursing mothers and contractions during childbirth. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH): ADH, also called vasopressin, regulates water balance. If ADH is not secreted in the right amount, this can lead to too much or too little sodium (salt) and water in the bloodstream. http://www.skullbaseinstitute.com/video _pituitary_tumor.htm http://www.youtube.com/watch?featur e=player_detailpage&v=-S_vQZDH9hY Endocrine Gland A gland (as the thyroid or the pituitary) that produces an endocrine secretion -- called also ductless gland, gland of internal secretion. Endocrine System The glands and parts of glands that produce endocrine secretions, help to integrate and control bodily metabolic activity, and include especially the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, islets of Langerhans, ovaries, and testes. Exocrine Gland A gland (as a sweat gland, a salivary gland, or a kidney) that releases a secretion external to or at the surface of an organ by means of a canal or duct. Gland A cell, group of cells, or organ of endothelial origin that selectively removes materials from the blood, concentrates or alters them, and secretes them for further use in the body or for elimination from the body. Glucagon A protein hormone that is produced especially by the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and that promotes an increase in the sugar content of the blood by increasing the rate of breakdown of glycogen in the liver. Hormone Any one of the many circulating chemical signals found in all multicellular organisms that are formed in specialized cells, travel in body fluids, and coordinate the various parts of the organism by interacting with target cells. Hypothalamus The ventral part of the vertebrate forebrain; functions in maintaining homeostasis, especially in coordinating the endocrine and nervous systems; secretes hormones of the posterior pituitary and releasing factors, which regulate the anterior pituitary. Insulin A vertebrate hormone that lowers blood glucose levels by promoting the uptake of glucose by most body cells and the synthesis and storage of glycogen in the liver. Essential Question 1.How do humans communicate with the world around them? How does the Nervous System and Endocrine System Communicate. The hypothalamus connects these two important communication systems. The hypothalamus is a tiny collection of nuclei that is responsible for controlling an astonishing amount of behavior. Hypothalamus located at the base of the forebrain, regulates basic needs such as sleep, hunger, thirst and sex in addition to emotional and stress responses. hypothalamus controls the pituitary glands, which controls the release of hormones from other glands in the endocrine system 2. How does the power of sight allow humans to communicate with the outside world? A dissociation between physical reality and subjective perception the visual illusion is one of the most important tools used by neuroscientists to understand how the brain creates its sense of reality. Optic Nerve Sclera Cornea Anterior Cavity Posterior Cavity Tapetum Choriod Optic Disc or Blind Spot Pupil Aqueous Humor Vitreous Humor Iris Ciliary Body Suspensory Ligaments Lens http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=pl ayer_embedded&v=0rbCrJoTatE -Cow Eye Dissection Cornea: the clear front window of the eye. The cornea transmits and focuses light into the eye. Iris: the colored part of the eye. The iris helps regulate the amount of light that enters the eye. Lens: the transparent structure inside the eye that focuses light rays onto the retina. Macula: a small area in the retina that contains special light-sensitive cells. The macula allows us to see fine details clearly. Optic Nerve: the nerve that connects the eye to the brain. The optic nerve carries the impulses formed by the retina to the brain, which interprets them as images. Pupil: the dark center in the middle of the iris. The pupil determines how much light is let into the eye. It changes sizes to accommodate for the amount of light that is available. Retina: the nerve layer that lines the back of the eye. The retina senses light and creates impulses that are sent through the optic nerve to the brain. Vitreous: the clear, jelly-like substance that fills the middle of the eye. 3. How is light focused by the eye? 4. How do the eye and the brain work together to process what we see? 5. How does what we see impact other human body systems? Accommodation The automatic adjustment of the eye for seeing at different distances affected chiefly by changes in the convexity of the crystalline lens. Astigmatism A defect of an optical system (as a lens) causing rays from a point to fail to meet in a focal point resulting in a blurred and imperfect image. Blind spot The small circular area in the retina where the optic nerve enters the eye that is devoid of rods and cones and is insensitive to light. Cone Any of the conical photosensitive receptor cells of the vertebrate retina that function in color vision. Cornea The transparent part of the coat of the eyeball that covers the iris and pupil and admits light to the interior. Depth Perception The ability to judge the distance of objects and the spatial relationship of objects at different distances. Hyperopia Iris Lens Myopia Optic nerve A condition in which visual images come to a focus behind the retina of the eye and vision is better for distant than for near objects -- called also farsightedness. The opaque muscular contractile diaphragm that is suspended in the aqueous humor in front of the lens of the eye, is perforated by the pupil and is continuous peripherally with the ciliary body, has a deeply pigmented posterior surface which excludes the entrance of light except through the pupil and a colored anterior surface which determines the color of the eyes. A curved piece of glass or plastic used singly or combined in eyeglasses or an optical instrument (as a microscope) for forming an image by focusing rays of light. A condition in which the visual images come to a focus in front of the retina of the eye because of defects in the refractive media of the eye or of abnormal length of the eyeball resulting especially in defective vision of distant objects -- called also nearsightedness. Either of the pair of sensory nerves that comprise the second pair of cranial nerves, arise from the ventral part of the diencephalon, form an optic chiasma before passing to the eye and spreading over the anterior surface of the retina, and conduct visual stimuli to the brain. Pupil The opening in the iris, which admits light into the interior of the vertebrate eye; muscles in the iris regulate its size. Refraction The deflection from a straight path undergone by a light ray or a wave of energy in passing obliquely from one medium (as air) into another (as water or glass) in which its velocity is different. Retina The sensory membrane that lines most of the large posterior chamber of the vertebrate eye, is composed of several layers including one containing the rods and cones, and functions as the immediate instrument of vision by receiving the image formed by the lens and converting it into chemical and nervous signals which reach the brain by way of the optic nerve. Rod Any of the long rod-shaped photosensitive receptors in the retina responsive to faint light. It is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment by processing information that is contained in visible light. The resulting perception is also known as eyesight, sight, or vision Predict your dominant eye. Which eye do you think is your dominant. Next, locate an object 8-10 feet away. Keep both eyes open and hold your thumb up at arms length. “Cover” the object with your thumb. Now, close the right eye. If the thumb appeared to move to the right, the right eye is dominant. If the thumb did not seem to move, the left eye is dominant. Poll the class to see how the result matched their prediction. Introduce optical illusions and depth perception by showing hidden image stereograms. You can either bring in books or have them view the online example at the Magic Eye® site http://www.magiceye.com/faq_example.htm. Show DVD: Human Body: Pushing the Limits DVD series. Chapter 2 – 1.11 on the Sight DVD http://www.allaboutvision.com/eyeexam/refraction.htm. In pairs make your way through the eleven stations. Only spend about 10 minutes in each station You will need Activity 2.4.2: Student Response Sheet The retina of the eye possesses two special types of nerve cells known as photoreceptors. › Rods function in dim light and perceive shades of gray. › Cones function in bright light and provide sharp, colorful images. Impulses from rods and cones pass through nerve cells to the optic nerve. There are three different types of cones: › Red cones › Blue cones › Green cones Each type of cone is sensitive to a different range of wavelengths of light. Different types of cones function together to interpret colors other than blue, red, and green. If any of the cones malfunction, color deficiency or color blindness occurs. Depth perception is the ability to judge the relative distances between objects in three dimensions. With one eye, the field of vision appears two-dimensional. With two eyes, the eyes see and the brain processes different views of the same object. Two parts of the eye – the cornea and the lens – focus light on the retina. The cornea does most of the work, but it cannot change shape. Fine adjustments are carried out by the lens. Accommodation is the combination of reflex actions by which the lens of the eye changes to keep the focal length, the distance between the center of the lens and its focal point, constant. Ciliary muscles in the eye assist adjustment of the lens. Astigmatism is a condition in which the cornea or the lens is irregularly shaped. This shape change causes incoming light rays to refract and converge improperly. The light rays do not focus at a specific point on the retina, resulting in a blurry or distorted image. Astigmatism may be corrected with eyeglasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery. The optic nerve exits the eye at the retina on its way to the brain. Since this area of the retina does not have receptors that respond to light, it is referred to as the blind spot. An image that falls on this area can not be seen. Normally people do not recognize the blind spot because the eyes are always on the move and the brain ignores this “hole” in visual input. Peripheral vision is the ability to see things that fall outside of the direct line of vision. Due to their proximity to the edge of the retina, rods are responsible for this aspect of vision. Peripheral vision is better for detecting movement than for processing sharp images, and is most often stronger in the dark. Optical illusions are visual tricks that actually take place in the brain rather than the eye. The visual cortex of the brain deciphers images sent from the eye, however surrounding objects, intense colors, distortions of expected patterns, and preconceptions can cause the mind to “see” and interpret an image differently. Afterimages are optical illusions that occur when looking away after staring intently at a fixed image or color. The constant light stimulating the retina causes the cones in that area to become fatigued. After looking away from the image, the lessstimulated cones, which are not fatigued, still function. The resulting image lasts briefly and because it comes only from the less-fatigued cones, is perceived as a negative image. 6. What is visual perception? 7. What does it mean to have 20/20 vision? 8.How can corrective lenses be used to refocus light and resolve myopia and hyperopia? 9. How does the eye perceive depth, color and optical illusions? http://www.exploratorium.edu/seeing/n otfadeaway/site/quitdriving.html RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA HYPEROPIA MYOPIA GLAUCOMA REVIEW QUESTIONS Refers to a group of inherited disorders that slowly lead to blindness due to abnormalities of the photoreceptors in the retina. near- sightedness short-sightedness A vision condition in which close objects are seen clearly, but objects farther away appear blurred. Myopia occurs if the eyeball is too long or the cornea, the clear front cover of the eye, has too much curvature. As a result, the light entering the eye isn’t focused correctly and distant objects look blurred. A defect of vision caused by an imperfection in the eye (often when the eyeball is too short lengthwise or when the lens can’t become round enough causing inability to focus on near objects) As an object approaches the eye, the eye must increase its power to keep the image in focus on the retina. In hyperopia the power of the cornea and lens is insufficient so the image appears blurred. Glaucoma is an eye disease that affects the pressure of the eye, resulting in optic nerve damage. The aqueous and vitreous humor expand, which then covers the optic nerve, which leads to vision loss. Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness. 10. How does an error in the structure or function of the eye relate to disease or dysfunction? 11. How is life impacted by a vision disorder? 12. What are the tests and procedures in a routine eye exam? Part 1 Create a handout titled “What You Need to Know about an Eye Exam”. Career Journal: › Opthamologist › Optometrist › Optician Describe a Scenario of why a a patient would see this type of eye doctor in addition to the information listed on your Career Journal Rubric.