Mobile Scaffold Training Safe Work Practices Environmental Health, Safety, and Risk Management University of Alaska Fairbanks V 2011.1 Learning Objectives Understand the Following: • OSHA and the mobile scaffold safety regulations • Hazards associated with operating mobile scaffolds • How to control mobile scaffold hazards • Proper use of mobile scaffolds • Proper materials handling on mobile scaffolding • Proper Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) • Mobile scaffold inspection procedures • Training requirements • Equipment operation practical (by supervisor) The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) • • • • The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 …assures so far as possible that every working man and woman in the nation, has safe and healthful working conditions and to preserve our human resources OSHA is an agency of the U.S. Department of Labor The act resulted in the development of health and safety-specific standards which are now federal and state laws Several OSHA laws mandate the safe use and operation of mobile scaffolds OSHA Scaffold Regulations 29 CFR 1926 Supart L Scaffolds (mobile scaffolds) 29 CFR 1910.28 Safety Requirements for Scaffolding 29 CFR 1910.29 Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds (towers) 29 CFR 1915 Shipyard Employment 29 CFR 1917 Marine Terminals 29 CFR 1918 Long Shoring Requirements Specific Mobile Scaffold Training Requirements There are no OSHA provisions that specifically address scissor-type lifts; however, since scissor lifts do meet the definition of a scaffold (29 CFR 1926.451), so employers must comply with the other applicable provisions of Subpart L when using scissors lifts. Since scissors lifts are mobile, the specific requirements for mobile scaffolds in the scaffold standard (29 CFR 1926.452(w) must be met. Each employee who performs work while on a scaffold must receive training on the OSHA-required subject matter. This will better enable them to recognize the hazards associated with the type of scaffold being used and to understand the procedures to control or minimize those hazards. This presentation provides the above information which is beneficial to the safe operation and use of mobile scaffolds at UAF. In your department, a hands-on orientation and assessment is also required prior to using any mobile scaffold equipment. OSHA standards cover over 25 types of scaffolds! - Pole scaffolds: Single-pole wood pole scaffolds. Independent wood pole scaffolds. - Tube and coupler scaffolds. - Fabricated frame scaffolds. - Plasterers', decorators' and large area scaffolds. - Bricklayers' square scaffolds. - Horse scaffolds. - Form scaffolds and carpenters' bracket scaffolds. - Roof bracket scaffolds. - Outrigger scaffolds (one level). - Pump jack scaffolds. - Ladder jack scaffolds. - Window jack scaffolds. - Tank builders' scaffolds. - Crawling boards (chicken ladders). - Step, platform and trestle ladder scaffolds. - Single-point adjustable suspension scaffolds. - Two-point adjustable suspension scaffolds. - Stonesetters' multi-point adjustable suspension scaffolds. - Masons' multi-point adjustable suspension scaffolds. - Catenary scaffolds. - Float (ship) scaffolds. - Interior hung scaffolds. - Needle beam scaffolds. - Multi-level suspension scaffolds. - Repair bracket scaffolds. - Stilts. - MOBILE SCAFFOLDS. This presentation will cover Mobile Scaffolds only! Definition of a Mobile Scaffold Mobile scaffolds are a type of supported scaffold set on wheels or casters. Examples: Scissor-type lifts (Genie Lift) and mobile towers They can be powered or non-powered and are designed to be easily moved and are commonly used for things like painting and plastering, changing out light bulbs, or any overhead work etc., where workers must frequently change position. Does not include Aerial Lifts like certain vehicle-mounted elevating and rotating work platforms, namely "extensible boom platforms," "aerial ladders," "articulating boom platforms," "vertical towers,” and combinations of any of the above, etc., which are covered under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard 29 CFR 1926.453, Aerial Lifts Mobile Scaffolds Scissor-Type Lifts The perfect piece of equipment for increasing worksite productivity, scissor lifts are typically used where less reach and height, but more workspace and lifting capacity, are required. They are designed with larger platform work areas and generally allow for heavier loads than boom lifts. Scissor lifts may be maneuvered in a manner similar to boom lifts, but the platform typically can only be raised vertically, except for some models that extend their deck horizontally a short distance also. Mobile Scaffolds Mobile Towers Mobile towers are lightweight, with fast assembly and dismantling usually needing no special tools. They are incredibly versatile and are ideal for jobs which are going to take just a few hours such as residential and/or commercial painting and general maintenance work. When used properly, they are safe and usually a lot safer than trying to work from a ladder. Mobile Scaffold Safety Requirements Scaffold casters and wheels shall be locked with positive wheel and/or wheel and swivel locks, or equivalent means, to prevent movement of the scaffold while the scaffold is used in a stationary manner. Where leveling of the scaffold is necessary, screw jacks or equivalent means shall be used. Caster stems and wheel stems shall be pinned or otherwise secured in scaffold legs or adjustment screws. Manual force used to move the scaffold shall be applied as close to the base as practicable, but not more than 5 feet (1.5 m) above the supporting surface Power systems used to propel mobile scaffolds shall be designed for such use. Forklifts, trucks, similar motor vehicles or add-on motors shall not be used to propel scaffolds unless the scaffold is designed for such propulsion systems Scaffolds shall always be stabilized to prevent tipping during movement. Mobile Scaffold Safety Requirements Employees shall not be allowed to ride on scaffolds unless the following conditions exist: The surface on which the scaffold is being moved is within 3 degrees of level, and free of pits, holes, and obstructions The height to base width ratio of the scaffold during movement is two to one or less, unless the scaffold is designed and constructed to meet or exceed nationally recognized stability*** Outrigger frames, when used, are installed on both sides of the scaffold When power systems are used, the propelling force is applied directly to the wheels, and does not produce a speed in excess of 1 foot per second No employee is on any part of the scaffold which extends outward beyond the wheels, casters, or other supports Platforms shall not extend outward beyond the base supports of the scaffold unless outrigger frames or equivalent devices are used to ensure stability Before a scaffold is moved, each employee on the scaffold shall be made aware of the move *** ALWAYS Check Operators Manual for Limitations on riding scaffolding! Mobile Scaffold Accidents Scaffold accidents are most often the result of a combination of improper use of the equipment, a lack of training, and lack of equipment inspection The following accounts of actual mobile scaffold accidents show they were absolutely preventable! Mobile Scaffolding Accidents A worker on a self-propelled scissor lift was installing bolts to connect two large overhead steel beams. The platform controls were not protected against inadvertent operation. The worker inadvertently activated the lever for controlling elevation. The platform elevated. The worker was pushed firmly onto the control lever when he was caught between an overhead beam and the elevating platform’s guard rail. The platform continued to rise, fatally crushing the worker. What should be done to prevent a similar incident? • Use only elevating work platforms with controls that are protected against inadvertent operation! Mobile Scaffolding Accidents A window washer was killed when the elevated scissor lift he was operating flopped sideways, throwing him to the pavement below. He died shortly afterward from massive head and back injuries. At the time of the accident, the window washer was repositioning the self-propelled scissor lift. The lift was equipped with an operational tilt sensor that automatically lowers the operator's lift platform when the tilt exceeds three degrees to any side. He was operating the lift on an eight-degree slope, exceeding the slope capacity by five degrees. However, the wires leading to the tilt sensor had been intentionally disconnected, leaving the window washer without any tilt protection. What should be done to prevent a similar incident? • Conduct routine equipment inspections • Verify functionality of all safety devices • Do not override safety devices The OSHA Scaffolding standards were the most frequently cited regulation(s) during compliance inspections in 2010…… • Scaffold related fatalities still account for approximately 9% of all fatalities on construction sites. • Whether in construction or general industry, OSHA has understandably determined that employees using scaffolds are exposed to a significant risk of harm. • • This stresses the importance of scaffold training! The following training topics cover key areas for the safe operation of your mobile scaffold Mobile Scaffold Key Training Areas… Electrical hazards Fall hazards Falling object hazards in the work area Dealing with electrical hazards and for erecting, maintaining, and disassembling the fall protection and falling object protection systems Environmental Hazards The proper use of the scaffold, and the proper handling of materials on the scaffold The maximum intended load and the load-carrying capacities of the scaffolds used Personal Protective Equipment Inspections Electrical Hazards Electricity has the power to shock, burn, and kill; not to mention cause fires or explosions Electrical hazards encountered on a scaffold can be from power tools and equipment Misused or damaged extension cords Contacting overhead power lines - Always stay at least 10 feet away! Electrical Safety Because metal frame scaffolds are conductive, power tools, cords, etc., that suffer insulation failure can electrify the entire scaffold. This poses a risk of electrocution not just to the worker holding the tool, but also to everyone who contacts the scaffold. GFCI (ground-fault circuit interrupters) are required for any outdoor or wet condition work using electrically powered equipment Power Cords All power cords used on scaffolding will be properly grounded and inspected prior to and during work, and will be approved for outdoor or wet conditions when applicable Do not hang equipment on power cords/lines Never mix/match 2 prong power/extension cords with 3 prong tools/equipment Do not set equipment on power cords where they could cut/abrade them Do not place cords where they could become a tripping hazard Fall Hazards Leaning or climbing over scaffold guardrails could result in a fall off the scaffolding Horseplay on a scaffold could have serious consequences Ice, snow, rain and liquids on platform can cause slips/possible fall….keep as clear/dry as possible Slips or trips on equipment, tools, etc., used on the scaffold platform. Keep it tidy! Proper use of scaffold ladder – Always maintain 3 points of contact on ladder (both hands and one foot, or both feet and one hand, at all times while climbing/descending Lack of Fall Protection puts workers in great danger! Specific Fall Protection Requirements: Personal fall protection is required any time employees work on a scaffold which is not protected by a complete guardrail system and is 10-feet or more above a lower level. If a worker leaves the confines of the scaffold platform (which is adequately guarded) then an additional fall protection device is required. Proper guardrails at 36-45 inches require no other fall protection (equipment manufactured before 1 Jan 00) Proper guardrails at 38-45 inches require no other fall protection (equipment manufactured after 1 Jan 00) Rails must withstand 200 pounds down/horizontal direction applied along top edge Falling Object Hazards Tools, equipment, materials, ice, etc. can fall from work activities on platform, potentially injuring personnel below Hardhat required for all users on, and persons working below, scaffold Place tools and other equipment or materials away from edge of platform Protective zones below scaffold also protect workers from falling objects Toe-boards or screens 3 ½ inches high required on platforms 10 feet high or greater - Toe-boards help prevent items from falling off the working surface (platform) - Toe-boards on a mobile tower scaffold Outdoor Environmental Hazards Ice/snow/rain on a scaffold platform can cause slips/possible fall….keep as clear/dry as possible OSHA says: “NO SCAFFOLD use until platform is cleared of snow!” Wind can tip scaffolding Lightning and metal scaffolding = DANGER! Other Scaffold Hazards: Overturning • Scissor lifts are typically not designed to be able to hold large, heavy loads that extend beyond the edges of the platform • As a scissor lift extends its arms, this type of load will cause the lift to become unbalanced (it will be top heavy, with gravity pulling down on the overhanging section of material), which can ultimately result in the entire lift overturning • Setting up the lift on uneven ground, or driving the lift on uneven surfaces or while the platform is raised could also result in overturning Other Scaffold Hazards: Getting Crushed/Pinched • Perhaps the most dangerous aspect of working with a scissor lift is the potential for having a limb or other body part pinched or crushed in the scissor arms or between the top rail and overhead structure • These arms collapse down upon each other at multiple joint locations when the platform is lowered, all of which serve as entryways for potential injury • Ensure command of platform controls at all times to avoid “over-lfting” • NEVER put your hands or feet under the platform of the scissor lift unless you need to perform maintenance. In which case, you will need to disconnect the power and insert safety bars, which prevent the platform from collapsing. Proper Use of a Scaffold: - Access/egress using only approved ladder or stairs - No jumping on platform - Observe/heed prohibited actions Proper handling of materials on scaffolding: Use tag lines to hoist equipment onto scaffold - do not carry materials or equipment up the ladder! Hand equipment on platform, do not throw, toss, etc Place items away from edge of platform when possible Never walk under awkward/heavy loads being lifted to the scaffold platform Prohibited user actions: - No horseplay on scaffolding! - No access or operation without training! - No hanging over or between rails! - No standing/hanging on outside of scaffold! - No throwing objects to ground/personnel below - Loads should not be rigged onto the scissor lift! - No altering scaffold without competent person approval and presence! Competent Person Requirement Erecting, Maintaining, and Disassembling scaffolds must be done by a Competent Person. Contact EHS&RM to coordinate these activities. Note: Scissor-type lifts typically come pre-assembled and may have only a few parts (like rails. outriggers, or control boxes) that need to be installed, moved, or stored away. "Competent Person" means one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them Don’t forget….Alterations to a scaffold can only be approved by, and in the presence of, a Competent Person OSHA also requires a plan for: Dealing with electrical hazards and for erecting, maintaining, and disassembling the fall protection and falling object protection systems Electrical Hazards: Contact EHS&RM at 474-5413 or Facilities Services Dispatch at 474-7000, if you encounter any electrical hazards Emergency Contacts: Ensure you are familiar with your Department Emergency Action Plan Scaffold erecting and maintaining, and disassembling the fall protection and falling object protection systems: Contact EHS&RM or Facilities Services for assistance and coordination of these tasks. Accident Procedures (Follow instructions on EHS&RM website) Know the maximum intended load and the load- carrying capacities of the scaffold used Scaffolds shall be capable of supporting, without failure; it’s own weight and at least 4 times the maximum intended load. Load includes equipment too, not just people. Look on the lift spec plate or label, or in the owner’s manual, for specific load rating allowances Never exceed the max load – it could result in equipment failure or a tip-over Personal Protective Equipment A hazard assessment of actual scaffold activities will determine all PPE required. Minimum requirements should include: Hard Hats Safety Eye Wear Safety Toe Boots/Shoes Fall Protection Systems (if guardrails not already built into the scaffold) Scaffold Set-Up and Access Ensure guardrails, screens, toe boards, etc. are in place - Don’t forget any components! Place barriers, warning cones, or use traffic spotters at access points to scaffold use area indicating “authorized personnel only beyond this point” or similar warning. This will keep passersby from accidentally walking into your work zone. Ensure mobile scaffold is not used between shifts by unauthorized personnel. Prevent access to equipment and secure powered scaffold operator keys Inspections Inspections: Users shall inspect the mobile scaffold prior to each shift and during use, and report any defects or concerns to Supervision or work leader. Equipment may also require routine detailed inspection per the manufacturer’s instructions (see owners manual) Recommend using a formal checklist - Owners manual may have a pre-made checklist - EHS&RM has a general checklist you may use Ensure all inspections are documented For Scaffolds Found to be Defective If during an inspection, or routine use, you identify a defective component of the scaffold, you must take appropriate measures to ensure the equipment is tagged and taken out of service Any safety deficiency must be immediately brought to the supervisor’s attention Equipment will be affixed with the appropriate tag and use must be prohibited until the equipment is repaired. Contact EHS&RM to place tag on equipment. If the equipment is motorized, also secure away the starter key from any potential users READ THAT EQUIPMENT MANUAL!! All users MUST be familiar with the equipment they will be using! Review the Owners Manual Understand The Warning Labels on your equipment! Safety Alert Symbol: Used to alert personnel to potential personal injury hazards. Obey all safety messages that follow this symbol to avoid possible injury or death. Red Used to indicate the presence of an imminently hazardous situation which, if not avoided, will result in death or serious injury Orange Used to indicate the presence of a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in death or serious injury Yellow with safety alert symbol used to indicate the presence of a potentially dangerous situation which, if not avoided, may cause minor or moderate injury Yellow without safety alert symbol Used to indicate the presence of a situation which, if not avoided, may result in property damage Green Used to indicate operation or maintenance information Failure to obey the instructions and safety rules in the equipment manual can result in death or serious injury A common “pre-use” checklist for mobile scaffold inspection, and work area survey Perform pre-use scaffold inspection Ensure all users/operators are trained Survey work area for anticipated hazards Ensure all PPE is available All tools/associated equipment safely stored on the platform Be aware of the scaffold load limits Close off area when doing major overhead work/projects Use a signaler or spotter where required Operate lift only on solid & level ground Operate lift with all other workers clear of the site Smooth/safe operating speed for various local conditions Lift mobilizes only when the unit is in fully lowered position (Based on recommendations in manufacturers manual) Re-training Requirements When the employer has reason to believe that an employee lacks the skill or understanding needed for safe work involving the erection, use or dismantling of scaffolds, the employer shall retrain each such employee so that the requisite proficiency is regained. Retraining is required in at least the following situations: Where changes at the worksite present a hazard about which an employee has not been previously trained; or Where changes in the types of scaffolds, fall protection, falling object protection, or other equipment present a hazard about which an employee has not been previously trained; or Where inadequacies in an affected employee's work involving scaffolds indicate that the employee has not retained the requisite proficiency Always retrain in the event of an Accident or Near Miss Accidents/Injuries while using a mobile scaffold…… Must be reported immediately to EHS&RM - regardless of severity! Use UAF Accident/Incident Report form found on our website Call 474-5413 for immediate assistance Any accident with mobile scaffolding must be promptly investigated to help prevent future incidents/accidents and injuries Last… but not least… Supervisor Equipment Review Your supervisor must demonstrate operation of the equipment you will use You must practice hands-on operation of the equipment under the direct observation of your supervisor or other adequately trained employee You should be “signed off” on your equipment prior to your first, unsupervised use. Before operation, ensure you understand… The equipment Safety Features of your equipment What the Warning Labels mean on you equipment That the manufacturers manual is your best resource for safety information regarding your specific mobile scaffold equipment! Continued Supervised Practice or Observation recommended! Please exit this PowerPoint presentation and begin the Mobile Scaffold quiz….. Quiz is located at: www.uaf.edu/safety - Go to Training/UAF Safety Training PowerPoints Once you have taken the quiz, hit enter and your submission will be sent to us for review NOTE: There is no need to contact us to let us know you have finished the quiz. Your quiz will be graded and your score will then be electronically filed for future reference. Thank You and Good Luck!