CVFD Training – SCBA B27.1

Report
CVFD Training – SCBA
SFFMA Training Objectives:
27-01.01 – 27-01.06
Objectives (1 of 2)
• List two conditions requiring respiratory protection.
• List and explain the effects of oxygen deficiency and toxic
gases on the human body.
• List one legal requirement for use of SCBA.
• List two types of SCBA.
• List four components of the SCBA used by the authority
having jurisdiction.
7.2
Objectives (2 of 2)
• Demonstrate two different SCBA donning
procedures.
• Demonstrate routine inspection of SCBA.
• Demonstrate after-use maintenance and
servicing.
• Demonstrate the servicing of an SCBA cylinder
with the air-filling system.
7.3
Introduction (1 of 3)
• SCBA an important item of PPE.
• SCBA allows firefighters to work in oxygen
deficient atmospheres.
• Human body very vulnerable to oxygen deficient
atmosphere.
• Respiratory protection policy must exist.
• SCBA required in an IDLH area.
Click Here to View Video: SCBA Functions
7.4
Introduction (2 of 3)
• Many changes in SCBAs since the 1970s
– Decrease in weight
– Must be positive pressure
– Improved design
– SCBA maintenance programs
– PASS devices
– Better training programs
– Increased regulations
7.5
Introduction (3 of 3)
• Improvements
– Technology
– Regulations
– Mandates
• SCBA improvements are only as effective as
the training and proficiency firefighters
develop in using SCBA.
7.6
Conditions Requiring Respiratory
Protection
•
•
•
•
Oxygen deficiency
High temperatures
Smoke
Unburned products
of combustion
• Toxic environment
7.7
Oxygen-Deficient Environments
• Humans and fire both require oxygen to survive.
• Oxygen deficiency is detrimental to the human body.
Click Here to View Video: Proper
Use of SCBA/ Effects of Smoke and
Fire
7.8
Click Here to View Video: SCBA
Standards, Types and Limitations
Elevated Temperatures
and Smoke
• Inhalation of heated gases can cause fluid
to build up in the lungs and create longterm, irreversible damage.
• Combustion by-products are very irritating
to the body.
• High temperatures can also cause severe
burns to the respiratory system.
7.9
PPE for Oxygen-Deficient
Environment
7.10
Effects of Toxic Gases
and Environments (1 of 2)
• Toxic gases are produced by combustion.
– These gases affect various body systems.
• Hazardous materials can increase the risk to
firefighters.
• CO is one of the most lethal gases produced by fire.
– CO attaches to blood 218 times easier than O2.
7.11
Effects of Toxic Gases
and Environments (2 of 2)
• CO prevents
distribution of O2 in
the body, causing
hypoxia.
• Without SCBA, a
firefighter will not
survive.
• Repeated exposure to
toxins has long-term
effects.
7.12
Legal Requirements for SCBA
• OSHA - Respiratory Protection Standard Title
29 CFR 1910.134
• 29 CFR 1910.134 standard for all entries into
IDLH atmospheres
• NFPA standards (1500, 1404, 1981)
• NIOSH 42 CFR Part 84
7.13
Organizations Concerned with
SCBA Design and Use
Organizations Concerned with SCBA Design and Use
7.14
ORGANIZATION
STANDARD
APPLICATION
National Institute for
Occupational Safety &
Health (NIOSH)
42 CFR Part 84
Requirements for design,
testing, certifying SCBA
Occupational Safety &
Health Administration
(OSHA)
29 CFR 1910.134
Respiratory protection
programs for SCBA use
Occupational Safety &
Health Administration
29 CFR 1910.156
Fire Brigade Standard,
references 1910.134
National Fire Protection
Association
NFPA 1404
Standard for Fire
Department SCBA
Program
National Fire Protection
Association
NFPA 1500
Standard on Fire
Department Occupational
Safety & Health Program
National Fire Protection
Association
NFPA 1981
Standard on Open-Circuit
SCBA for the Fire Service
Limitations of SCBA (1 of 2)
• SCBA design and size
– Increases weight and girth
– Decreases mobility
– Requires good physical conditioning
– Must be aware of how long air will last
– Limits visibility
– Voice muffled and hard to understand
7.15
Limitations of SCBA (2 of 2)
• Limitations of SCBA user
– Factors such as facial hair or weight loss can alter
mask effectiveness.
– Lack of confidence can lead to anxiety.
– Training/experience will improve confidence and
ability.
– Increased physical stress causes anxiety.
– Emotional state may affect respiratory rate and air
consumption.
7.16
Constant Training Is Essential
Click Here to View Video: SCBA in Emergency
Situations
7.17
Physically Demanding Tasks
7.18
Types of SCBA
• Two types of SCBA in use
– Open-circuit SCBA
– Closed-circuit SCBA
• Both built according to NIOSH and NFPA standards
7.19
Open-Circuit SCBA (1 of 2)
7.20
Open-Circuit SCBA (2 of 2)
• SCBA has four assembly components.
– Backpack and harness
– Cylinder
– Regulator
– Face piece assembly
7.21
SCBA Harness Assembly
7.22
Open-Circuit SCBA — Cylinders (1
of 2)
• SCBA cylinders vary in
material and type.
• USDOT regulates
compressed gas cylinders.
• Quality of the compressed
breathing gas has a direct
effect on the performance
of the SCBA.
7.23
Open-Circuit SCBA —
Cylinders (2 of 2)
SCBA Air Cylinder Capacities
7.24
RATED DURATION
(MINUTES)
MATERIAL
CYLINDER
PRESSURE
(PSI)
CAPACITY
COMPRESSED
AIR (FT3)
30
Aluminum or Composite
2,216
44
30
Aluminum or Composite
4,500
44
45
Carbon Fiber
3,000
65
45
Aluminum or Composite
2,216
65
45
Aluminum or Composite
4,500
65
60
Aluminum or Composite
4,500
88
SCBA Regulator (1 of 2)
• Regulator is attached to
the face piece or waist
strap.
• Regulator has a pressure
gauge.
• Regulator is activated by
user’s breathing action.
7.25
SCBA Regulator (2 of 2)
• The regulator maintains
constant positive
pressure airflow to the
face piece.
• Units have low air
supply warning alarm.
• NFPA 1981 requires two
types of alarms.
7.26
SCBA Face Pieces
• Annual face piece
fit test is required.
• Exhalation valve
keeps toxic gases
out.
7.27
Closed-Circuit SCBA
• Not used for regular firefighting operations
• Commonly used for hazmat operations and
below-grade rescues
• Contains cylinder, filter system, regulator,
and valves
7.28
Open-Circuit Supplied Air
Respirator (SAR)
• Air supply cylinder is
remote from user.
• It provides user with
long- duration air
supply.
• It is used for hazmat
operations and confined
space rescues.
7.29
Donning and Doffing SCBA (1 of 2)
• Perform safety check first.
• Use one of two methods.
– Over the head method
– Coat method
• SCBA is also mounted in
seats.
• Never stand to don while
apparatus is moving.
• After securing SCBA, don
face piece.
7.30
Click Here to View Video: SCBA
Testing and Service/ Donning SCBA
Donning and Doffing SCBA (2 of 2)
• The proper donning of a face piece is
essential.
• After exiting hazardous area, remove SCBA.
Remove face piece while waiting for
assignment.
• Local protocol may require rehab after
assignment.
7.31
Over the Head Method
7.32
Coat Method
7.33
Seat-Mounted SCBA
7.34
SCBA Operation and Emergency
Procedures
• Firefighters must be proficient in:
– Safe use of SCBA
– Donning and doffing procedures
– Individual limitations
– Limitations of SCBA
7.35
Safe Use of SCBA (1 of 2)
• Firefighters must be physically fit for
respirator use.
• Accountability system should be in place.
• Must work in teams of two at a minimum.
• OSHA “two in/two out” regulation.
• PASS device must be activated.
7.36
Safe Use of SCBA (2 of 2)
•
•
•
•
SCBA operations should include rehab time.
Stay hydrated during rehab.
Air consumption will vary for all.
Never remove the face piece in a
contaminated environment.
• Low air alarm on one team member means
the whole team exits.
7.37
PASS Devices
7.38
Operating in a Hostile
Environment (1 of 2)
• Always check in/out with accountability
officer.
• Always remain low.
• Check the environment.
• Never remove a face piece.
• Be aware of your location at all times.
7.39
Operating in a Hostile Environment
(2 of 2)
• Ventilate as you
advance.
• Check outside
openings.
• Maintain contact with
team members.
• Never enter a hostile
environment alone.
7.40
Restricted Openings
• Never remove face piece!
• Loosen straps and rotate SCBA under arm.
• Remove harness and hold SCBA as a last
resort.
• Do not lose contact with SCBA.
• Maintain control of unit.
• Practice procedures regularly.
7.41
SCBA Use in Restricted Openings
7.42
Emergency Procedures
with SCBA
•
•
•
•
•
Remain calm.
Immediately exit hazardous area.
Activate PASS device.
Announce your emergency over the radio.
If regulator or face piece fails, use bypass
valve.
• Buddy breathing is only a last resort.
7.43
Inspection and
Maintenance of SCBA
• Have SCBA ready to go at all times.
• Routinely inspect SCBA.
– Remove unit and check it after each use.
– Monthly operational check should be done.
• Service less than full cylinder.
7.44
Servicing SCBA Cylinders
• Test and certify air source.
• Cylinders must have current hydrostatic
test date.
• Fill stations must have fragmentation
containment devices.
• Always follow manufacturer’s
recommendations.
• Remember, fill rates will vary.
7.45
Fragmentation
Containment Device
7.46
Summary
• SCBA is one of the most important PPE items.
• Both SCBA and the user have limitations.
• Firefighters must be familiar and comfortable with use of
SCBA.
• Firefighters need to be proficient in the proper and rapid
donning of SCBA
• Routine inspections and maintenance are important.
7.47

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