argumentation vocabulary terms

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ARGUMENTATION
VOCABULARY TERMS
Analyze
To methodically examine
in detail the composition
or structure of something,
(especially information
or evidence), for
purposes of explanation
and interpretation.
The detective was
asked to analyze
the evidence for the
case.
Anecdote
A brief narrative account,
often intended to illustrate or
support a point.
NOTE: The expression anecdotal
evidence refers to the use of particular
instances or concrete examples to
support a claim. Such information
(sometimes referred to negatively as
"hearsay") may be compelling but
does not, in itself, provide proof.
Although the defense
lawyer provided several
clever anecdotes, this
was not sufficient
evidence to win the
case.
Argumentation
the act or process of
forming reasons and
drawing conclusions
in support for or
opposition to a given
topic in discussion or
writing
He tried to
use argumentation,
rather than force, to
convince his
opponents.
Backing
In argumentation, the
support or explanation
provided for the
warrant.
NOTE: The backing is
often characterized
by the word because.
The fact that the team
with the best defense has
won the Superbowl for the
last five years, was his
backing for stating that
the team with the best
defense would win the
Superbowl once again.
Claim
The main idea or
point being
maintained as
true
Because the
prosecuting
attorney was so
unclear, the judge
had to ask, “What is
your claim?”
Conclusion
the end decision
or judgment
reached by
reasoning and
examination of
evidence
After analyzing all of
the evidence, their
conclusion was that
Arthur was a hopeless
drunk.
Consequences
In logic, the
relationships between
statements that hold
true when one logically
"follows from" one or
more to others; the
conclusions that follow
the premises
Cameron is CHS football
player.
All CHS football players
are red devils.
Consequently, it follows
that Cameron is a red
devil.
Counterargument
a contrasting, opposing, or refuting
argument to the
initial argument at
hand
Shannon and Alison were
ready to offer their
counterargument to Mr.
McMahon about why
they should be allowed
to bring a 21-year-old
guest to the
homecoming dance.
Evidence
Data or grounds
to prove or
disprove
something
Although the jury
believed Queenie
was guilty, there
was not enough
evidence to prove
it.
Experts
a person who has
special skill or know
-ledge in a particular field; a specialist
or an authority
The expert stated
that he did not feel
the level of
intoxication was
enough to cause
the victim’s death.
Generalization
a proposition asserting
something to be true
either of all members of
a certain category or of
an indefinite part of that
category
The employer’s
generalization
about teenagers
was that all
teenagers are lazy.
Grounds
The foundation or
basis for the
claim; the
supporting
evidence for the
argument
There were no
grounds to prove
the claim that the
Indians would soon
have a winning
team again.
Misrepresentation
the action or
offense of giving a
false or misleading
account
Mrs. Volupides’ coworker, who had never
gotten along with Mrs.
Volupides, tried to provide
misrepresentation with the
hope that Queenie would
lose her job.
Qualifier
Statements that limit the
strength of the argument
or statements that propose
the conditions under
which the argument is
true; the degree of
certainty about the claim
The numerous
qualifiers in her
argument made the
jury seem unsure
about her claim.
Reasoning
the action of
thinking about
something in a
logical, sensible
way
Although his mother
explained the reasoning
behind her decision, Matt
was not happy with the
final outcome about his
curfew.
Relevant
having direct
bearing on the
matter in hand;
pertinent, related,
appropriate
The defense lawyer
accused the
prosecuting attorney
of bringing up
evidence that was not
relevant to the case at
hand.
Rebuttal
the act of refuting or
contesting one
argument by
offering a contrary
dispute or argument
After listening to
Brandon’s reasons
for being excused
from school forever,
the principal offered
his rebuttal.
Statistics
the collection, analysis,
interpretation, and
presentation of large
quantities of numerical
data; a collection of
such quantitative data
Had the lawyer
provided a more
statistical argument,
he may have won the
case to ban all
smoking.
Substantive
Important,
meaningful or
essential;
supported by
facts or logic
Matt’s argument
was not substantive
enough to convince
his parents to
extend his curfew.
Sufficient
The detective
enough; an
determined
that
the
adequate amount
autopsy report was
sufficient to prove the
victim was
intoxicated.
Testimonial
a formal statement
affirming someone's
character and
qualifications
Based on the
testimonial of the
witness, it appeared
as though Mrs.
Volupides was telling
the truth.
Undisputable (also Indisputable)
incontestable: not
open to question;
obviously true;
undeniable
The evidence against
the defendant was so
undisputable, the jury
was sure to vote
“guilty.”
Valid
having a sound
basis in logic or
fact; reasonable
The group’s
conclusion was not
very valid, given the
evidence they had to
support it.
Warrant
The chain of
reasoning that
connects the claim
of an argument to
the grounds or
evidence
Although she had
found some good
evidence, there was
no warrant to support
her claim.
Well-founded
based on good
evidence or
reasons
His argument was
so well-founded, no
one could argue
against him.

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