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Report
Principles of Drilling Fluids
钻井液工艺原理
Chapter 10
NEW DRILLING FLUID
TECHNOLOGY
钻井液体系新进展
Prof. Dr. Xiuhua Zheng
E-mail: [email protected]
Exploration Dept. School of Engineering and Technology, China University of Geosciences(Beijing)
中国地质大学(北京)工程技术学院勘查教研室
Test for §9
1.
Silica-Oxygen tetrahedron
1.
硅氧四面体
2.
octahedral sheet
2.
八面体晶片方钻杆
3.
2:1-Type unit layer
4.
hydrogen bonding
3.
4.
单元晶层
氢键
5.
c-spacing
5.
晶层间距
6.
Isomorphous substitutions
6.
晶格取代
7.
Adsorption of a cation
8.
exchangeable cations
9.
Montmorillonite
7.
8.
9.
10.
吸附阳离子
可交换阳离子
蒙脱石
高岭石
10. Kaolinite
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 2
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Glossary of §10
1. Silicate-based
2. Mixed Metal Hydroxide
3. Polyol
4. Micro-bubble
5. Formate
6. Non-invasive
7. Polymeric Amine
8. Cloud point"(浊点)
Drilling Fluids
§10
1.
硅酸盐
2.
正电胶
3.
聚合醇
4.
微泡
5.
甲酸盐钻井液
6.
无侵害钻井液
7.
聚胺钻井液
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 3
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Contents
1
Silicate-based Drilling Fluid(硅酸盐钻井液 )
2
Mixed Metal Hydroxide Drilling fluid(正电胶钻井
液)
3 Polyol Technology System (聚合醇钻井液)
4 Micro-bubble Drilling Fluid(微泡钻井液)
5 Formate Drilling Fluid (甲酸盐钻井液)
6 Non-invasive Drilling Fluid (无侵害钻井液)
7 Polymeric Amine Drill Fluid(聚胺钻井液)
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 4
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
1.Silicate-based Drilling Fluid
Introduction
 silicate-based drilling fluids using sodium and potassium
silicate(硅酸钠或硅酸钾)is a lower cost and effective
drilling fluid with very good shale inhibitive capacity,
reduced formation damage and environmental safety.
 silicate-based drilling fluids offers the flexibility and
versatility to design a mud system for almost any drilling
environment and provides.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 5
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Characteristics
• Molar of silicate is the weight ratio of SiO2:Na2O (重量比), being
the key parameter that determines the properties of drilling fluid.
• liquid silicates with higher ratios will contain proportionately greater
levels of condensed, complex species with higher molecular
weights. the low and mid ratio liquids will contain significant levels of
low molecular weight chains and cyclics as well as free monosilicate.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 6
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Mechanism
• In-gauge holes are achieved through a unique
combination of versatile chemical reactions; most
notably gelation(胶凝) and/or precipitation(沉淀) on
shale surfaces.
• These reactions also lead to the sealing of microfracture, cracks and rubble giving a silicate drilling fluid a
decided advantage over any oil mud, significantly
reducing potential mud losses and costs.
• silicate drilling fluids provide a thin, tough, ultra low
permeable filter cake reducing drilling problems such as
differential sticking or torque & drag, while providing
improved cementing.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 7
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Advantages
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
Superior Well Bore Stability
Excellent Shale Inhibitive Capacity
Excellent ROP
Runnability
Safety
Cost
Environment
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 8
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
2.Mixed Metal Hydroxide Drilling Fluid (MMH)
正电胶钻井液
Characteristics
• Mixed metal layered
hydroxide compounds are
inorganic materials which
are made up of discreet
layers, consisting of two
or more metal ions
surrounded by hydroxide
ions.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 9
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Characteristics
• When added to prehydrated bentonite, the
positively charged MMH
particles interact with the
negatively charged clays
forming a strong complex
that behaves like an
elastic solid when at rest.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 10
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Mechanism
•
the sheets are electron
deficient and a
crystallographic positive
charge is generated, The
surface interacts with
these anions through an
ion exchange
mechanism, similar to
that of anion exchange
resin or clay mineral.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 11
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Advantages
A. MMH has unusual rheology: excellent hole-cleaning
properties
B. MMH has great gel strength at rest, the structure is
easily broken.
C. MMH also provides chemical shale inhibition.
D. MMH is a special fluid sensitive to many traditional
mud additives and some drilling contaminants.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 12
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Application
A. horizontal and short-radius wells
B. unconsolidated or depleted sandstone
C. high-temperature, unstable shale
D. wells with severe lost circulation
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 13
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
3.Polymerized-Alcohols Drilling Fluids
聚合醇钻井液
Characteristics
A. Polyol is the generic name for a wide class of chemicals
including glycerol(丙三醇), polyglycerol(聚丙三醇),
glycols(乙二醇)and propylene glycol(丙二醇).
B. The water solubility of glycol decreases as temperature
increases. The temperature at which glycol and water
separate is known as the "cloud point"(浊点)
C. Polyol drilling fluid has the capability of excellent
borehole stability, upgraded lubrication on the mud
itself and the borehole wall, reduced formation damage
and lowered dilution rate.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 14
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Mechanism
·
Drilling Fluids
§10
the entire solution temperature
has risen above the cloud
point, two distinct phases
become visible. When the
solution cools, the glycol and
water recombine to form a
clear, single phase. The glycol
drops out of solution and
attaches to the “hot” shale.
This protective layer prevents
the shale from interacting with
the water, minimizing swelling.
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 15
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Advantages
The high performances of the glycol system are:
A. superior lubricity
B. improved fluid hydraulics
C. ease-of-conversion
D. excellent borehole stability
E. enhanced shale inhibition.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 16
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
4. Micro-bubble (Aphron) Drilling Fluid
可循环微泡沫钻井液
Features
• The Structure of a gas
aphron at the molecular
level:
The aphron is composed
of a gas core and a more
complex soapy shell,
which has an inner as well
as an outer surface with a
sheath of viscous water
Structure of a gas aphron
between them.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 17
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Features
· Energized Micro-Environment
of Aphron Structure and
Bubble Flow
An aphron, which has a
diameter of 96 microns at the
0.1 MPa surface pressures, is
compressed into a smaller
one with 16 micron diameter
at 21.89 MPa.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 18
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Features
Bridging Mechanism in a
Loss Zone
pressure resists intrusion of
hydrophobic micro-bubbles
into capillary restrictions in
the formation.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 19
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Mechanism
Aphron drilling fluid
possesses unique viscosity
structure and viscosity size,
forms a temporary blocking
zone that deters or delays
the drilling fluid to enter
reservoir, and enjoys better
leakage-proof and
reservoir-protection.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 20
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
5. Formate Drilling Fluid
甲酸盐钻井液
Characteristics
A.
B.
C.
Formate is safe for the environment and crew.
Recycling cuts fluid costs by reclaiming formate and
using them in multiple wells.
No weighting agent means no sag, and no sag means
the elimination of a whole pile of problems, from
additional hours circulating and conditioning muds to
serious well control incidents.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 21
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
characteristics
D.
Naturally weighted. Formate brine drilling fluids are naturally
weighted, monovalent fluids with a maximum density of 2.30g/cm3
(19.10 ppg) for cesium formate, 1.57 g/cm3 (13.05 ppg) for
potassium formate and 1.30 g/cm3 (10.85 ppg) for sodium
formate.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 22
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
characteristics
E.
An adequate amount of viscosifier, FL control agent,
lubricant and defoamer are concurrently used in the
fluid for obtaining a system with satisfactory properties.
F.
This system is characterized by its excellent stabilizing
capacity and evidently reduced formation damage.
High cost and enormous quantity of formate required
limit the application range of this system.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 23
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Advantages
A.
B.
C.
D.
No weighting materials means no sag, improved ECD
(Equivalent Circulating Densities) and better overall
circulation rates
High compatibility with reservoir fluids and minerals
maximizes reservoir protection and improves well
productivity
Extremely versatile fluids used in all phases of drilling
and completion eliminate the costs of fluid change
Optimized hydraulic flow maximizes power
transmission, facilitates hole cleaning and increases
ROP (Rate of Penetration)
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 24
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Advantages
E.
Alkaline properties give outstanding corrosion
protection
F. Stabilizes shale and enhances borehole stability
G. Improves well control and allows faster tripping
H. Excellent compatibility with elaptomers and polymers
I. Facilitates faster and more accurate logging – even
with extended reach drilling
J. Best environmental and safety profile of all drilling and
completion fluids
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 25
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
6. Non-invasive Drilling Fluid
(无侵害钻井液)
Introduction
•
Conventional drilling is conducted with an over-balanced pressure
on the reservoir formation, which causes the drilling fluid to invade
and damage the rock. In order to overcome the problem of
formation while drilling, a method was developed to drill with a
bottom-hole pressure below the pore pressure, called Underbalanced Drilling-UBD. The development and recent increase in
UBD activity is due to the understanding that there will be no
formation damage if a reservoir is drilled under-balanced. UBD is,
most probably, still the best way to achieve no-damage drillingSM.
However, the big problem associated with UBD is how to
guarantee that no overbalance periods will happen while drilling
or completing the well. Also, there are many situations in which
technically it is not possible to have an under-balanced pressure
kept at all times. Just a small period of overbalance may cause
damaging filtrate invasion.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 26
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
characteristics
•
•
The NIFSM is a new class of drilling fluid, with ultra-low
solids content, less than 10 ppb.
The characteristics of this fluid are its capacity to build
up a sealing membrane of certain strength into certain
thickness of the formations around the borehole by
addition of special polymer type additives into a water
base or oil base drilling fluid.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 27
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Advantages
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
Totally friendly to the environment
Effective sealing of hetergenneous permeable formation with the
same fluid composition
Allows increase of the leak-off pressure
Widens a narrow mud weight window
Seals permeable formation and micro-crack in shale
Can drill the overburden and the reservoir with the same fluid,
including completion
Reduced transport and storage costs
Reduction of differential stuck pipe risk
Reduction of fluid losses, virtually eliminating them
Reduction of well-bore instability problems
Reduction formation damage
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 28
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Formulation
–
–
–
DWC2000, a viscosifier; (max dosage 30 kg/m3)
FLC2000, a dynamic fluid loss reducer (routine
dosage 6~12 kg/m3);
KFA2000(dosage range 20~300 kg/m3), a lubricant
The three additives are of one-sack type and can be
used individually or in combination and the
formulation must be determined by pilot tests.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 29
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Mechanism
• When added to a waterbased fluid, some of the
polymers in the blend
dissolve to provide fluid
loss control similar to
many conventional
additives. However, other
species only partially
solvate because of their
oil-loving characteristics;
these polymers organize
into deformable
aggregates or micelles.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 30
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Mechanism
• these micelles have the
ability to form rapidly a
low permeability seal over
pore throats and microfracture, thereby greatly
limiting fluid invasion.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 31
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Mechanism
• In some respects, the
micelles act like the water
droplets in invert
emulsion oil mud; these
water droplets are known
to concentrate in the filter
cake where they make a
major contribution to the
invasion control seen with
oil mud.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 32
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Mechanism
• By functioning as a very low
permeability barrier, the
additive has the ability to
protect weak formations
against pressure transmission
and fracturing. This effective
increase in fracture gradient
widens the safe drilling window
and has great potential for
improving drilling performance,
not only in micro-fractured
formations but also in depleted
zones, unconsolidated sands,
etc.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 33
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Mechanism
• Particle size analysis suggests that the micelles
range from a few microns to close to 1000 microns in
diameter (the d50 is around 60 microns, the d10 is 9
microns and the d90 340 microns).
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 34
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
 Comparison with traditional drilling fluids
A. Particles are calcium carbonate and salt, an acidification job or
dissolution with water would eventually remove the damage
created.
B. Bridging approach requires the particles to penetrate into the rock,
and find a suitable pore size, according to the particle size
distribution.
C. Maintenance of the NIFSM is extremely easy. Addition of the fluid
loss controller additive, FLC2000, is enough to maintain the sealing
effectively. And the amount required is dictated by a test conducted
against a sand bed. If the sealing is not effective, addition of more
FLC2000, is needed.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 35
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Application
A. Reservoir inter-bedded with shale
B. Reservoir with different pressure exposed in the same
open hole section
C. Severe well-bore instability problems due to mechanical
causes ( high tectonic stresses, for example)
D. Narrow mud weight window
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 36
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
7. Polymeric Amine Drill Fluid
(聚胺钻井液)
Introduction
A high performance water-based mud (HPWMB-also
called amine base drilling fluid) containing clay and shale
stabilizers, a ROP enhancer, and sealing agents was
developed to drill the well and is taken as the substitution
for oil base mud. The high performance drilling fluids use
a new cationic polymer—ether/glycol polyamine as shale
inhibitor。This amine salt has a high inhibitive and bit
balling prevention capacity, and is environmentally
friendly.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 37
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Evolution of nitrogen-based shale inhibitor
Ammonium Chloride → Ammonium Salt mud Systems
→ Organic Cationic Materials → Quaternary Cationic
Polymers → (PHPA-Partially Hydrolyzed
Polyacrylamide) → Quaternary Alkyl-Amine
→Quaternary Hydroxyl Amines) → Amphoteric Polyamine Acids →Alkyl-Diamines→ Polyamine Glycols →
Ether/Glycol Polyamines.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 38
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
characterictis
HPWBM drilling fluid
system significantly
reduces clay dispersion,
hydration, and accretion
outperforming previously
developed inhibitive WBM
systems and reaching
into the performance
territory of OBM.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 39
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
characterictis
HPWBM drilling fluid
system significantly
reduces clay dispersion,
hydration, and accretion
outperforming previously
developed inhibitive WBM
systems and reaching
into the performance
territory of OBM.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 40
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
mechanism
The CHS functions in
mechanism similar to
potassium chloiride in
suppressing clay
hydration, without being
constrained by the
performance and
environmental issues
associated with KCl.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 41
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
mechanism
The data presented demonstrate how the CHS
effectively reduces the hydration and dispersion of
reconstituted shale wafers in laboratory tests.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 42
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
advantage
A. shale stability through reduced or reversed pressure
transmission effects
B. suppression of reactive swelling clays
C. improved cuttings encapsulation and solid removal
efficiency
D. minimizing differential sticking tendencies
E. maximizing rate of penetration(ROP)
F. minimizing torque and drag
G. environmental compliance
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 43
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Future development
A. Extension of amine and oligomer performance to
higher temperatures
B. Economically tailor oligomer to optimum and consistent
molecular weight and configuration for improved
filtration control and membrane development.
C. Source less expensive amines which meet performance
expectations.
D. Investigate of a broad range of organic and inorganic
osmotic drivers which complement membrane
development.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 44
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Discussion
• Why and how are the new drilling fluids
developed, and their applications.
Drilling Fluids
§10
New Drilling Fluid Technology
2010中国地质大学(北京)
page 45
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)

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