Insights into Book the Second Chapters 22 and 23 Insight into Book the Second Chapter 22 “The Sea Still Rises” Always remember that Dickens will often give you a connection to the title in the first line of the chapter. That process holds true in the first three words of Chapter 22: The “sea” in the title is, of course, the Third Estate—and the Third Estate’s revolutionary center is in Saint Antoine (at the Defarges’ wine shop, specifically). On page 223, at the end of the first paragraph, note that we have the end of the rose as a symbol. Be sure you understand why. The personification of Saint Antoine continues in this chapter; however, you should be careful to note the change in Saint Antoine’s “appearance” (because, of course, the power that “he” is gaining due to the Revolution). On page 224, we meet the character known as “The Vengeance.” Mark this introduction of the character and pay attention to her. She becomes Madame Defarge’s sidekick. In the middle of page 224, you hear about a character named “old Foulon.” This historically real character was a hated aristocrat who is supposed to have said, “"If this rascal has no bread then he should eat hay.” Page 225 paints a horrible picture of the female revolutionaries, who are the mostfeared characters of Dickens’ book. The “forty Furies” on page 225 are an allusion to the Greek and Roman mythologcal characters who were terrible winged goddesses with serpentine hair. Alecto, Megaera, and Tisiphone pursued and punished doers of unavenged crimes. Insight into Book the Second Chapter 23 “Fire Rises” Be sure to understand the connection between the titles of Chapters 22 and 23. On page 229, “Monseigneur as a class” is personification of the Second Estate; therefore, these paragraphs in the middle and bottom of the page deal with the Second Estate attempting to get out of France. Page 230 and 231 may be a bit confusing, but keep in mind that some of the most important revolutionaries were arsonists who traveled from town to town, burning down the homes of the 2nd Estate. Page 233 takes us to the burning of the chateau of the Marquis St. Evremonde. At the bottom of the page, note how high the flames are. This number should be familiar—especially with the remembrance of Gaspard’s gallows. Deeper symbolism of the forty-feet high flames of the Evremonde chateau is intended here: In the book of Exodus, chapter 13, a pillar of fire that is forty-feet high leads the people out of Egypt and slavery. Dickens is telling us symbolically that these flames will also lead people out of repression and into liberation. On page 235, we see Gabelle taken prisoner by the revolutionaries. Remember that Gabelle was the servant to the Evremonde’s. He’s taken prisoner because he’s accused of running the Evremonde estate in the absence of any aristocrat (because, of course, Charles is in England).