Chapter 3 Communicating Across Cultures

Report
Chapter 3
Communicating Across
Cultures
Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Mary Ellen Guffey
Copyright © 2008
Intercultural Skills in the New Workplace
Importance of
Intercultural Skills
Characteristics
of Culture
Dimensions
of Culture
Savvy Intercultural
Communication
Ethics and
Diversity
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 2
The Importance of Intercultural Communication
Global Markets
Global Connectivity
Intercultural Workforce
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 3
Intercultural Communication Matters
acquisitions, and
Global  Mergers,
buyouts stir growth beyond
Markets national boundaries.
 American companies in
global markets must adapt
to other cultures.
 New trade agreements,
declining domestic markets,
and middle-class growth
drive global markets.
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 4
Intercultural Communication Matters
 Advances in logistics and
transportation reduce
distances.
 Information technology has
changed they way we do
business.
 The Internet permits instant
communication across time
zones and continents.
Global
Connectivity
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 5
Intercultural Communication Matters
Intercultural
Workforce
 Immigration makes
intercultural communication
increasingly necessary.
 Business communicators
must learn to adapt to an
intercultural workforce.
 Multinational companies and
diversity at home require
culturally savvy workers.
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 6
Characteristics of Culture
Learned
behavior
Dynamic
and
evolving
Inherently
logical
Culture
Visible and
invisible
Shapes us
and our
community
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 7
How We Form Judgments
Stereotype
Oversimplified behavioral
pattern applied
uncritically to groups
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 8
How We Form Judgments
Prejudice
Rigid attitude based on
erroneous beliefs or
preconceptions
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 9
How We Form Judgments
Prototype
Mental representation
based on characteristics
that are flexible and open
to new definitions
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 10
How We Form Judgments
Question 1:
Why is it important to
make generalizations in
describing cultural
prototypes?
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 11
How We Form Judgments
Question 2:
Are all generalizations
invalid?
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 12
Comparing U.S. and Foreign Views
How Many U.S. Persons
View Themselves
How Many Foreigners View
U.S. Persons
Informal, friendly, casual
Egalitarian
Direct, aggressive
Efficient
Goal- and achievement-oriented
Profit-oriented
Resourceful, ingenious
Individualistic, progressive
Dynamic, identify with work
Enthusiastic, prefer hard sell
Open
Undisciplined, too personal
Insensitive to status
Blunt, rude, oppressive
Opportunistic, obsessed with time
Promise more than they deliver
Materialistic
Deals more important than people
Self-absorbed
Driven
Deceptive, fearsome
Weak, untrustworthy
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 13
Dimensions of Culture
Context
Time
Orientation
Communication
Style
Individualism
Culture
Formality
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 14
Dimensions of Culture: Context
Context
High-context cultures tend to
be relational, collectivist,
intuitive, and contemplative.
Japan, China, Arab countries
Low-context cultures tend
to be logical, linear, and
action-oriented.
North America, Germany,
Scandinavia
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 15
Dimensions of Culture: Individualism
High-context cultures tend
to prefer group values, duties,
and decisions.
Individualism
Low-context cultures tend
to prefer individual initiative,
self-assertion, and personal
achievement.
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 16
Dimensions of Culture: Formality
Some cultures may prefer
greater formality in dress,
speech, and social interaction.
Formality
North Americans place less
emphasis on tradition,
ceremony, and social rules.
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 17
Dimensions of Culture: Communication Style
High-context cultures rely on
nonverbal cues and the total
picture to communicate.
Meanings are embedded at
many sociocultural levels.
Communication
Style
Low-context cultures emphasize
words, straightforwardness, and
openness. People tend to be
informal, impatient, and literal.
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 18
Dimensions of Culture: Time Orientation
Time is seen as unlimited and
never-ending in some cultures.
Relaxed attitude toward time.
Time
Orientation
Time is precious to North
Americans. Correlates with
productivity, efficiency, and
money.
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 19
High-Context and Low-Context Cultures
High Context
Japanese
Arab
Latin American
Spanish
English
Italian
French
North American
Scandinavian
German
Swiss
HIGH-CONTEXT CULTURES




Relational
Collectivist
Intuitive
Contemplative
LOW-CONTEXT CULTURES




Logical
Linear
Individualistic
Action-oriented
Low Context
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 20
Cultural Contrasts in Written Business
Communication
American
Japanese
Arab
Cultural
Provide
Objectives information
Seek
information,
offer proposal
Exchange
information
Opening
State objective
directly
Offer thanks,
apologize
Issue personal
greeting
Body
Present facts
and plans of
action, direct
approach
Pose
questions,
solicit
information
Provide background data,
use indirect
approach
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 21
Cultural Contrasts in Written Business
Communication
American
Persuasion Immediate gain
or loss of
tools
opportunity
Style
Urgency, short
sentences
Closing
Affirmative,
specific
requests
Cultural
values
Efficiency,
directness,
action
Japanese
Waiting
Modesty,
minimize
position
Maintain
harmony,
future
relationship
Politeness,
indirectness,
relationship
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Arab
Personal
connection,
future
opportunity
Elaborate
expression
Future
relationship,
personal
greeting
Status,
continuation,
recognition
Ch. 3, Slide 22
Proverbs Reflect Culture
U.S. Proverbs
 He who holds the gold
makes the rules.
 Waste not, want not.
 The early bird gets the
worm.
 If at first you don’t succeed,
try, try again.
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 23
Proverbs Reflect Culture
Chinese Proverbs
 A man who waits for a roast
duck to fly into his mouth must
wait a very, very long time.
 A man who says it cannot be
done should not interrupt a
man doing it.
 Give a man a fish, and he will
live a day; give him a net, and he
will live a lifetime.
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 24
Proverbs Reflect Culture
Other Proverbs
 No one is either rich or poor who has not
helped himself to be so. (German)
 Words do not make flour. (Italian)
 Wealth that comes in at the door unjustly,
goes out at the windows. (Egyptian)
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 25
Achieving Intercultural Proficiency
Applying the
norms of one’s
culture,
expecting that
others will act
the way we do.
The belief in the
superiority of
one’s own race
and culture
Ethnocentrism
© Maciej Frolow / Brand X Pictures/ Jupiterimages
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 26
Achieving Intercultural Proficiency
 Takes a
conscious effort
 Leads to more
satisfying
relationships
 Makes work life
more
productive and
gratifying
The belief in the
superiority of
one’s own race
and culture
© Maciej Frolow / Brand X Pictures/ Jupiterimages
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 27
Bridging the Gap Between Cultures
Practice
 Tolerance
 Openmindedness
 Empathy
See the world through
another’s eyes
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 28
Bridging the Gap: Saving Face
Respect the image a
person holds in his or her
social network.
In high-context cultures
opt for indirectness to
help preserve harmony.
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 29
Bridging the Gap: Patience
Be patient
 Wait and listen
 Embrace silence
Recognize the effort
non-native speakers are
making
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 30
Improving Intercultural Communication
 Learn foreign phrases.
 Use simple English.
 Speak slowly and
enunciate clearly.
 Observe eye messages.
 Encourage accurate
feedback.
 Check frequently for
comprehension.
 Accept blame.
 Listen without
interrupting.
 Smile when appropriate.
 Follow up in writing.
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 31
Improving Intercultural Communication
 Consider local formats.
 Observe titles and rank.
 Use short sentences and
short paragraphs.
 Avoid ambiguous
expressions.
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

Strive for clarity.
Use correct grammar.
Cite numbers carefully.
Accommodate reader in
organization, tone, and
style.
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 32
Making Ethical Decisions Across Borders
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Broaden your view of other
cultures.
Avoid reflex judgments.
Find alternatives.
Refuse business if options
violate your basic values.
Conduct all business openly.

Resist lawful but
unethical strategies.
Don’t rationalize shady
decisions.
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 33
Capitalize on Workplace Diversity
Seek training.
 Understand the value of
differences.
 Don’t expect conformity.
 Learn about your cultural
self.
 Make fewer assumptions.
 Build on similarities.

© BananaStock / Jupiterimages
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 34
End
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e
Ch. 3, Slide 35

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