THE TONIC AND SUBDOMINANT TRIADS IN FIRST INVERSION Chapter 11 The I6 and IV6 as Embellishing Chords Tonic and Subdominant Triads Root position triads built on ^1, ^4, & ^5 First inversions triads add ^3 & ^6 Helps create interesting melodic lines by using various embellishing tones between essential bass notes Partwriting with 6 I and 6 IV Rules are not as hard and fast as with root position Seek the smoothest connection between different voice parts Avoid perfect parallels, awkward melodic leaps, and questionable doublings Standard doubling: Double the soprano voice, either at the unison or octave. If this leads to a partwriting error, double a different voice. Partwriting with 6 I and 6 IV Ex. 11.2 Partwriting with 6 I and 6 IV 11.2A Doubling the soprano at the unison or octave 11.2B Often an O/O structure serves as a link between close and open structure or vice versa 11.2C The chordal 3rd of a I chord (^3) may appear in both the soprano and bass. Do not double the 3rd of a IV chord (active scale degree ^6). 11.2D You may double an inner voice if a suspension is placed in the soprano of a iv6 Partwriting with 6 I and 6 IV Promoting good doubling practices: Safest ^1, scale degree doublings: ^4, ^5 Questionable ^3, ^6 Never ^7 doublings double the leading tone The Use of 6 I Occurs in two contexts I6 can extend tonic harmony through three-note arpeggiations; I - I6 – I or I6 – I - I6 I6 may be used either to approach or depart from the V, V7 , or IV chords. In this case I6 would be an essential chord. Ex. 11.4 The Use of 6 I Ex. 11.4 The Use of the 6 IV Occurs in 3 basic contexts May extend IV harmony through arpeggiation, allowing passing tones to be used IV6 provides stepwise approach to V Phrygian IV6 I6 half cadence is sometimes linked to I6 to IV6 or IV6 to I6 this involves two inversions; voice doubling in one of the triads will need to be adjusted to avoid possible parallels The Use of the 6 IV IV6 extending IV harmony through arpeggiation Phrygian Half Cadence Derives from the characteristic voice leading used in the Phrygian church mode Occurs frequently in the minor mode Outer voices move stepwise by contrary motion to the dominant (^6 – 5) in bass and (^4 - ^5) in soprano Phrygian Half Cadence ^7 - ^6 suspension over the bass embellishes this progression Double the inner voices of the iv6 avoids parallels The IV as an Embellishing Chord Subdominant may function as an embellishment of the tonic; embellishing chordal neighbor Subdominant is shorter in duration and metrically weaker than the tonic is embellishes Embellishment occurs early in the phrase – long before the cadence point The I as an Embellishing Chord Melodic motion between two subdominant or dominant chords may create a consonant passing or neighboring harmony that embellishes V or IV This embellishing chord usually ends up being I or I6 Does not function as tonic – elaborates a weaker harmony Melody Harmonization – A how to… Harmonic rhythm #1 – Determine preliminary harmonies Opening harmony – downbeat Cadential formula – Roman numerals & scale degrees Chords Let will normally be in root position, unless: Phrygian cadence the soprano have ‘typical’ scale degrees Melody Harmonization – A how to… #2 – fill in the phrase interior Smart chord choices and a good bass line are a MUST Consider The what chords are supported by the melody Bass Line Good mixture of contrary and similar motion in outer parts Stress the use of imperfect consonances between S & B Reserve perfect intervals (5ths and 8vas) for the opening and cadence Melody Harmonization – A how to… Presently available chords to support different scale degrees in the soprano Melody Harmonization – A how to… #3 Fill in the inner voices to create a 4 part texture #4 Elaborate your note – against – note setting by various embellishing tones Be careful not to over-do the non-harmonic tones Beware any parallels that may be created by the addition of your non-harmonic tones Melody Harmonization – Conclusion #1 – Prep opening harmony and cadence formula #2 – Choose soprano notes, appropriate chords, and a solid bass line to fill the interior #3 – Fill in the interior voices using good partwriting practices #4 – Add embellishing tones.