Background to Book III The education of a Guardian should include a perfect balance of music and gymnastics The ruler is going to be selected among the Guardians To ensure the right selection of rulers, all the young guardians in training are made to go through tests Those that succeed are exposed to higher forms of education that will prepare them to rule The Guardians who are not selected to be rulers or of the ruling class are going to be re-named Auxiliaries The Auxiliaries are required to enforce the laws passed by the Guardians The Myth of the Metals • All citizens of the city were born of the earth • Each citizen has a certain sort of metal mixed in with his soul 1. Explain the significance of the metals. Rulers- souls is mixed with gold Auxiliaries- souls are mixed with silver Producers- souls are mixed with bronze or iron The city must never be ruled with a person whose soul is not made of gold or the city will be ruined. Auxiliaries: children and lifestyle 2. How does the city raise the children? The rulers watch the children to see which metals are mixed in their souls. They will be raised by the appropriate group based on the metal that the rulers see in their souls 3. What steps will be taken to prevent auxiliaries from turning on fellow citizens? A proper education and housing. They will live communally. Auxiliaries: private property 4. What restrictions are placed on the auxiliaries with regard to private property? They may not have any private property except for what is necessary. Their house and storeroom must be open to everyone else. 5. What conditions are put on the wages of the auxiliaries? They will be provided enough so that they will be no surplus and no deficit Their salaries are provided by taxing the producers 6. Why aren’t the auxiliaries (the ruling class) allowed to have private property? If the rulers are given private property, they will rule for their own gain and not for the good of the entire city. Background to Book IV Socrates has declared that they have developed a just city because it has the four virtues: 1. wisdom 2. courage 3. moderation 4. justice 7. How is each virtue identified in the city? Wisdom can be found with the guardians because of their knowledge of how the city should be run. Courage lies with the auxiliaries because it is their courage that will defend the city. Moderation is identified with the agreement over who should rule the city. Justice is finally defined as the principle of specialization, the law that all do the job to which they are best suited. 8. Socrates definition of justice: a) Justice is a political arrangement in which each person plays the appropriate role. b) Each is assigned a role that best suits their nature and society as a whole. Background to the reading of Book IV: Now Socrates turns back to the idea of finding justice within the individual. Tripartite soul- Socrates divides the soul of the individual into three parts: 9. The three parts of the soul are? a) The rational part that lusts for truth b) The spirited part that lusts for honor c) The appetitive part lusts for food, drink, sex, & money Virtue vs. Vice 10.What is virtue? Virtue is a certain health, beauty and good condition of the soul. 11. What is vice? Vice is sickness, ugliness and weakness 12. How does justice in the soul mirror the classes in a just society? In a just person the rational part of the soul rules the other parts, with the spirited part acting to keep the appetitive part in line. In a just city the truth-loving guardians rule, the honor loving auxiliaries acting to keep the money-loving producers in line. Myth of the metals Nature vs. Nurture Can you think of a person who was born to perform a certain task or job in life? Can you think of another person who was nurtured to perform a certain task or job in life? Write your answer down. Turn to another person and share your two examples. Do you believe in nature vs. nurture with regard to the task or job that a person should fulfill?