HONORS FORENSIC SCIENCE Who is Mrs. Kunkle?? Classroom Expectations • You will have homework most nights • You are expected to come in and start the warm up that is on the board and copy the essential questions onto your weekly sheet. Start class ON TASK. • You are expected to collaborate with others at times, and at other times do your own work. Cheating will not be tolerated. • You are expected to act respectful to me and each other. BE KIND ALWAYS. Materials Needed • • • • • PENCIL PEN Composition Notebook for Labs Paper Binder or folder to keep ALL of our work in. You will need to keep EVERYTHING! syllabus • Please follow along as I BREIFLY go over the syllabus. I know you can read, so we aren’t going to act like you can’t Movie Time • You will get in a team of 5 AFTER I give directions. • Your task will be to make a short film on one of the following topics: – Lab Safety – Team work in the classroom – Technology in the classroom – Respect in the classroom • You will create a group check sheet that must have three teacher initials before you get an ipad to film Team Checklist • Brainstorm a list of the 10 points you will include in your film • Write out a summary of your plot, theme or idea including what props you will need. • Write script • Film (you must have the above three things written out and approved before getting an ipad. WARM UP An inconsiderate slob dumped trash on Rachel Rabbit's lawn. One of these two suspects is guilty. Slylock Fox found evidence that may identify the loathsome litterbug. What did Slylock observe to help him identify the trash tosser? Hint: Notice the bones in the trash. ESSENTIAL QUESTION: How has TV dramatized the duties of Crime Scene Investigation? How Is real life different? HOT Q1:Identify 3 negative CSI effects 3 positive CSI effects the author talks about HOT Q2: What are specific factors that true crime labs differ from than TV Crime labs? HOT Q3: Source: http://www.slylockfox.com/arcade/BrainBogglers/index.html Slylock found bones in the trash. The bull is an herbivore and only eats plants. The raccoon is an omnivore and eats both plants and animals. The raccoon is the trash tosser. You have about 45 minutes to film! Week 1 - Friday Trivia! January 26 T. Trimpe 2006 http://sciencespot.net/ 1. Ted Bundy was an American serial killer who was convicted on the basis of which type of forensic evidence? A. Bite marks C. DNA fingerprinting B. Latent fingerprints D. Ballistics 2. The time of death can be calculated by various means. One is rigor mortis, Latin for 'the stiffness of death'. Another indication is livor mortis or lividity. What does this term refer to? A. Cloudiness in the eyes B. Gravitational pooling of blood C. Degree of digestion of stomach contents D. Relaxation of muscles following to rigor mortis 3. When attempting to identify a skeleton, craniofacial morphology (the structure and form of the skull and face) is the best indicator of race. One group of human beings has a unique, rounded jaw bone which is called a 'rocker jaw'. This is a characteristic of which ethnic group? A. Australian Aborigines C. African Americans B. Chinese D. Hawaiians 1. Ted Bundy was an American serial killer who was convicted on the basis of which type of forensic evidence? A. Bite marks Although he denied being the killer, Bundy made the mistake of biting one of his victims. So although he lied through his teeth, his teeth marks didn’t lie! 2. The time of death can be calculated by various means. One is rigor mortis, Latin for 'the stiffness of death'. Another indication is livor mortis or lividity. What does this term refer to? B. Gravitational pooling of blood Livor is Latin for 'a black and blue spot' and refers to the discoloration of the skin in the lowest part of a cadaver resulting from the gravitational pooling of blood. 3. When attempting to identify a skeleton, craniofacial morphology (the structure and form of the skull and face) is the best indicator of race. One group of human beings has a unique, rounded jaw bone which is called a 'rocker jaw'. This is a characteristic of which ethnic group? D. Hawaiians - The 'rocker jaw' is so called because it will rock back and forth like a rocking chair if gently pushed. Forensic Science T. Trimpe 2006 http://sciencespot.net Warm Up January 27 David was sitting in his hotel room reading a book, when he heard a knock at the door, and the sound of someone trying the door handle. He opened the door, where he saw a man whom he had never seen before. The man said, "I'm terribly sorry ... I thought this was my room. Wrong floor, I guess." He then walked off down the hall toward the elevator. David went back into his room, thought about what had just happened, and then phoned the front desk, suggesting they call the police, since the man at the door had obviously been a thief. Why was David so sure the man had been a thief? Essential Question: Who are the people that are most important in approaching, preserving, and processing a crime scene? Source: http://www3.sc.maricopa.edu/ajs/crime_scene_technician.htm Crime stats over the last 30 years How many crimes are solved? Watch the video and then answer the questions. Video Link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fGc4PaLB-ek 1. What crime lab did the reporter visit? A. Chicago B. New York C. Las Vegas 2. How many hairs did the investigator use to help in getting a conviction in the kidnapping/homicide case? A. 3 B. 30 C. 300 3. True or False? Real crime labs tend to be darker to make it easier to see evidence. 4. True or False? It is possible to match any hair found at a crime scene to a specific person. 5. What must be present in a hair sample to test for DNA? A. Shaft B. Cuticle C. Root The answers are … 1. What crime lab did the reporter visit? A. Chicago B. New York C. Las Vegas 2. How many hairs did the investigator use to help in getting a conviction in the kidnapping/homicide case? A. 3 B. 30 C. 300 3. True or False? Real crime labs tend to be darker to make it easier to see evidence. 4. True or False? It is possible to match any hair found at a crime scene to a specific person. 5. What must be present in a hair sample to test for DNA? A. Shaft B. Cuticle C. Root Crime Scene Vocabulary CRIME SCENE: Any physical location in which a crime has occurred or is suspected of having occurred. PRIMARY CRIME SCENE: The original location of a crime or accident. SECONDARY CRIME SCENE: An alternate location where additional evidence may be found. SUSPECT: Person thought to be capable of committing a crime. ACCOMPLICE: Person associated with someone suspected of committing a crime. ALIBI: Statement of where a suspect was at the time of a crime. Source: http://www3.sc.maricopa.edu/ajs/crime_scene_technician.htm Types of Evidence Testimonial evidence includes oral or written statements given to police as well as court testimony by people who witnessed an event. Physical evidence refers to any material items that would be present at the crime scene, on the victims, or found in a suspect’s possession. Trace evidence refers to physical evidence that is found in small but measurable amounts, such as strands of hair, fibers, or skin cells. What will evidence collected at a scene do for the investigation? • May prove that a crime has been committed • Establish key elements of a crime • Link a suspect with a crime scene or a victim • Establish the identity of a victim or suspect • Corroborate verbal witness testimony • Exonerate the innocent. • Give detectives leads to work with in the case Source: http://www3.sc.maricopa.edu/ajs/crime_scene_technician.htm Crime Scene Personnel POLICE OFFICERS are typically the first to arrive at a crime scene. They are responsible for securing the scene so no evidence is destroyed and detaining persons of interest in the crime. The CSI UNIT documents the crime scene in detail and collects any physical evidence. The DISTRICT ATTORNEY is often present to help determine if any search warrants are required to proceed and obtains those warrants from a judge. The MEDICAL EXAMINER (if a homicide) may or may not be present to determine a preliminary cause of death. SPECIALISTS (forensic entomologists, anthropologists, or psychologists) may be called in if the evidence requires expert analysis. DETECTIVES interview witnesses and consult with the CSI unit. They investigate the crime by following leads provided by witnesses and physical evidence. Source: http://science.howstuffworks.com/csi.htm Crime Scene Protocol Step 1: Interview The first step in investigating a crime scene is to interview the first officer at the scene or the victim to determine what allegedly happened, what crime took place, and how was the crime committed. This information may not be factual information but it will give the investigators a place to start. Step 2: Examine The second step in the investigation of a crime scene, which will help identify possible evidence, identify the point of entry and point of exit, and outline the general layout of the crime scene. Step 3: Document The third step in the protocol involves creating a pictorial record of the scene as well as a rough sketch to demonstrate the layout of the crime scene and to identify the exact position of the deceased victim or other evidence within the crime scene. Step 4: Process This is the last step in the protocol. The crime scene technician will process the crime scene for evidence, both physical and testimonial evidence. It is the crime scene technicians responsibility to identify, evaluate and collect physical evidence from the crime scene for further analysis by a crime laboratory. Adapted from http://www.feinc.net/cs-proc.htm Ammunition Blood Blunt objects Body fluids Bullets Cartridges Computers Controlled substances Drugs Explosion residue Fibers Finger print Fire residue Foot prints Glass residue Gun powder Guns Hairs Hammer Handwriting Impressions Ink Insulation Marijuana Paint residue Paper Printers Saliva Screwdriver Semen Soils Tool marks Toxicology Tire tracks Wood fibers With your group, place these items into 9 groups and give them a title. Investigating the Evidence Forensic Science disciplines at the Illinois State Police Crime Labs Drug Chemistry – Determines the presence of controlled substances and the identification of marijuana Trace Chemistry - Identification and comparison of materials from fires, explosions, paints, and glass. Microscopy – Microscopic identification and comparison of evidence, such as hairs, fibers, woods, soils, building materials, insulation and other materials. Biology/DNA – Analysis of body fluids and dried stains such as blood, semen, and saliva. Toxicology – Tests body fluids and tissues to determine the presence of drugs and poisons. Latent Prints - Identification and comparison of fingerprints or other hidden impressions from sources like feet, shoes, ears, lips or the tread on vehicle tires. Ballistics (Firearms) – Study of bullets and ammunition through the comparison of fired bullets, cartridges, guns, and gunpowder patterns on people and objects. Toolmarks – Examines marks left by tools on objects at a crime scene or on a victim, such as a hammer used to break a door or a screwdriver used to pick a lock. Questioned Documents - Examination of documents to compare handwriting, ink, paper, writing instruments, printers, and other characteristics that would help to identify its origin. Source: http://www.isp.state.il.us/forensics/ Pop Vocab Quiz Definition 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. evidence includes oral or written statements given to police as well as court testimony by people who witnessed an event. An alternate location where additional evidence may be found. is often present to help determine if any search warrants are required to proceed and obtains those warrants from a judge. Statement of where a suspect was at the time of a crime. interview witnesses and consult with the CSI unit. They investigate the crime by following leads provided by witnesses and physical evidence. Person associated with someone suspected of committing a crime. Any physical location in which a crime has occurred or is suspected of having occurred. • • • • • • • • • • • Word Bank A. Primary Crime Scene B. Trace Evidence C. Secondary Crime Scene D. Physical Evidence E. Testimonial Evidence F. Detectives G. Police Officers H. District Attorney I. Crime Scene J. Accomplice K. Alibi Definition 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Pop Vocab Quiz evidence includes oral or written statements given to police as well as court testimony by people who witnessed an event. (E) An alternate location where additional evidence may be found.(C) is often present to help determine if any search warrants are required to proceed and obtains those warrants from a judge. (H) Statement of where a suspect was at the time of a crime. (K) interview witnesses and consult with the CSI unit. They investigate the crime by following leads provided by witnesses and physical evidence. (F) Person associated with someone suspected of committing a crime. (J) Any physical location in which a crime has occurred or is suspected of having occurred.(A) • • • • • • • • • • • Word Bank A. Primary Crime Scene B. Trace Evidence C. Secondary Crime Scene D. Physical Evidence E. Testimonial Evidence F. Detectives G. Police Officers H. District Attorney I. Crime Scene J. Accomplice K. Alibi Some people just don’t get it… • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b9kh5q DjemI&feature=related What evidence would you collect? Mock Crime Scene: http://www.masss.gov Exit Ticket • Summarizing all of our discussions from today, what are 2 things that are different in TV Labs than Real-Life Labs. homework • http://www.virtualmuseum.ca/Exhibitions/ Myst/en/index.html • Search virtual exhibits for “crime scene” click on the brown box and play the game! • It is called “Interactive Investigator” • Write down your evidence and your suspect. Week 1 - Monday CSI Challenge Jan 28 Penny Challenge Which is the correct penny? NOTE: You cannot look at a real penny! 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Pros & Cons of Testimonial Evidence Presentation developed by T. Trimpe 2006 http://sciencespot.net/ Warm Up Jan 29 • Even if you AREN’t an artist… – Try to draw your accountability partner. Look for major features, like length of hair, how close their eyes are, size of nose, size of lips, etc. Give it your best shot! • ESSENTIAL Question: – How is testimonial evidence used to solve cases? What is testimonial evidence? Testimonial evidence includes oral or written statements given to police as well as testimony in court by people who witnessed an event. Eyewitness accounts can be a useful tool in helping investigators with analyzing a crime scene, but are not viewed to be highly reliable. In addition, eyewitness identifications (right or wrong) can have a big influence on the outcome of an investigation or trial. People are likely to view the same scene in different ways depending on their positions, line of sight, familiarity with the area, and other factors that can interfere with a person’s ability to remember details. The Bunny Effect CBS News Video Memory Challenge Directions: You will have 30 seconds to view the next screen. Try to memorize all 20 items you see! You are NOT allowed to write anything down You CANNOT talk to anyone else. Items to remember ... Neuroscience for Kids - http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/puzmatch1.html What do you remember? You have 2 minutes to list as many of the items as you can! How did you do? All 20 – Awesome 15-19 – Great 10-14 – Pretty swell 5-9 – Could be better 4 or Less – Wake up Did you know? According to The Innocence Project (2008) "Eyewitness misidentification is the single greatest cause of wrongful convictions nationwide, playing a role in more than 75% of convictions overturned through DNA testing." Still, the criminal justice system profoundly relies on eyewitness identification and testimony for investigating and prosecuting crimes (Wells & Olson, 2003). What factors affect a person’s memory and their ability to identify a suspect? Source: http://www.helium.com/items/1276135-accurate-eyewitness-accounts Witness Factors • Age may play a role in the accuracy of an eyewitness’ statement or identification of a suspect. Studies have shown that when a lineup contains the actual culprit, both young children and elderly perform well, but when the lineup does not contain the culprit there is a higher rate of mistaken identifications. • The race of the witness may also play a role. The Cross Race Effect (CRE) is a phenomenon in which people are better at recognizing faces of their own race rather than those of other races. • The use of drugs can alter a person’s ability to recall the events of a crime even after they are no longer under the influence. • A person’s memory of an event can be influenced by other witnesses, investigators, and/or the media. Investigators use open-ended questioning and follow procedures for conducting line-ups to limit their influence on a witness’ memory of an event or identification of a suspect. Source: http://www.helium.com/items/1276135-accurate-eyewitness-accounts Crime Scene & Suspect Factors • A crime that is extremely traumatic for an eyewitness may affect his/her recall of the event. For example, a witness confronted with a weapon tends to focus on the weapon rather than the perpetrator’s face. • Someone who is able to focus on a perpetrator's face for a minute or longer will tend to have a more accurate memory than someone who saw the person for only a few seconds. • Studies have shown that faces that are either highly attractive, highly unattractive, or distinctive are more likely to be accurately recognized. Simple disguises, such as hats or sunglasses, can interfere with accurate eyewitness identification. However, body piercings and tattoos increases the likelihood of an accurate identification. • The time of day in which the crime occurred as well as a person’s view of the scene may affect what a he/she is able to see. In addition, a person who is familiar with the area in which the crime took place, may have a better recall of the positions of the victims or suspects. Source: http://www.helium.com/items/1276135-accurate-eyewitness-accounts Crime Scene Challenge • Now that your eyes and brain are warmed up, let’s test your observation skills a bit more. • You will have 2 minutes to study the photograph of a crime scene on the next slide. • Try to pay attention to details as you will be asked 10 questions about the crime scene! • You are not allowed to write anything down until after the time is up. • Ready? Answer each question below. 1. What color coffee mug was in the picture? 2. When was the deadline? Yesterday Blue Red Today 3. What time was on the clock on the wall? Tomorrow 10:40 11:05 4. How many sticky notes were on the whiteboard? Four 7. What color was the victim's shirt? Black 8. How many plants were in the picture? None Bill Blue 10. Where was the book in the picture? On a box Source: http://forensics.rice.edu/html/picture_begin.html Eight Trash Can Brian Printer Carl Red One 9. What was the color of the marker in the desk drawer? 1:55 Six 5. Which of the following was NOT in the picture? Stapler 6. What was the name on the plaque on the desk? Yellow Two Red In the trash can Blue Green Under the body Facial Composites Investigators work with sketch artists and eyewitnesses to create facial composites, or sketches of a person’s face. Today many police departments are using facial reconstruction software to help them with this task. The composite may be used internally to assist officers in identifying the suspect or used externally through local media (radio, TV, and newspaper) to solicit leads from citizens. FACES – A software program that offers many options to help you recreate a person’s facial features. The Art of Crime Detection • Go to the following website and PLAY http://eduweb.com/portfolio/artofcrimedetection/ Week 1 - Thursday Spot the Differences Happy Birthday Jan 30 Source: http://www.slylockfox.com/arcade/6diff/index.html Find the 6 differences between the two pictures. Warm Up/Essential Question • What are the 3 most important steps when approaching a crime scene? • What are the necessary parts of a crime scene? • Essential Question: How should evidence be properly gathered from a crime scene? The Crime Scene bsapp.com Approaching a Crime Scene bsapp.com Approaching a Crime Scene Personal Safety and the well being of victims Preserve and Isolate the crime scene Record the crime scene bsapp.com Recording the Crime Scene Photograph s Sketches Notes bsapp.com Rough Sketch to Final bsapp.com Notes Match to sketch Use a key Quick, short, bulleted What can you not see from the photo? bsapp.com Photography Scene Multiple views Entrances Exits Windows Evidence Close ups Perspectives Multiple angles bsapp.com Consensus Forensic science begins at the crime scene, where investigators must recognize and properly preserve evidence for laboratory examination The first officer to arrive must secure the crime scene Investigators record the crime scene by using photographs, sketches, and notes and make a preliminary examination of the scene as the perpetrator left it. Collecting Evidence Victim's clothing Fingernail scrapings Head and pubic hairs Blood (for typing purposes) bsapp.com Vaginal, anal, and oral swabs Recovered bullets from the body and/or surrounding area Hand swabs or washings from shooting victims bsapp.com Collecting Evidence Bag & Tag bsapp.com Collecting Controls Prints DNA Samples Hair Other evidence from possible suspects or victims for comparison to evidence bsapp.com Take NOTES! You will need them Monday…. • Get this off google drive Crime Scene Sketch Analysis 1. What is missing from this sketch? List as many things as you can, and tell why they are important. 2. What is done correctly and well? Why is it important. 3. What other information would you like to know about this crime scene. 4. Is this a rough sketch or a scale sketch? Justify your answer. 5. Write a short story about what you think happened here….be creative Week 1 - Tuesday Spot the Differences Dinner Time Source: http://www.slylockfox.com/arcade/6diff/index.html Feb 2 Find the 6 differences between the two pictures. Bellwork Feb 3, 2015 • What did you ALL forget to include in your rough sketch (look at your notes) • Why is this important? • Compare your sketch to somebody else’s EQ: How can I make my rough sketch into a good final scale sketch? Bellwork Feb 4, 2015 • What are the qualities of a good crime scene sketch? • Why is it important that they be to scale and accurate? • Why are they important in addition to photographs? • Compare your sketch to somebody’s that was not in your group. Give them constuctive and positive feedback. • EQ: What do I need to study for Friday’s test???? Bellwork Feb 5, 2015 • Read the intro to Lyle and Louise, this is the case we will be using. • Write down any questions you have. • We will do our first “Lab” next week with this case. • EQ: Why are ethics important as a crime scene investigator? CSI Web Adventures • http://forensics.rice.edu/index.html • 5 cases to solve Homework: Collecting Controls What do You Need a Warrant For? bsapp.com Happy Monday, Let’s look at a REAL crime scene! Crime 360 • How does the fact that these are real people affect how you will view this? • How will you be respectful during this viewing. • If you are having trouble watching, what should you do? • EQ: How does a real CSI case differ from CSI the TV show? Questions about Crime 360/Exit ticket • What procedures that we have talked about in class did you see detectives use? • To get a more accurate view, detectives now use the laser scan of a crime scene, eliminating the need for crime scene sketches. How are the laser scanners better than sketches? Are there any down sides? • Think about this show as a whole, how is it different from an episode of CSI (or other dramatized show you may have seen)? Which do you like better?