Jonathan Swift (1667--1745) JONATHAN SWIFT Jonathan Swift was born in Dublin, Ireland, of an English family, which had important connections but little wealth. Through the generosity of an uncle, he was educated at Kilkenny Grammar School and then Trinity College in Dublin. Between 1689 and 1699 he worked as a private secretary to a distant kinship Sir William Temple, a retired diplomat. And there he also received a first-rate education in politics through contact with Temple and many other well-known politicians, learning much about hypocrisy,deception and corruption in the political world. Swift’s Literary Position and Works Literary Position Swift is one of the greatest masters of English prose. Swift is a master satirist. Even today, he is still regarded as a national hero in Ireland. Gulliver’s Travels (1726), his greatest satiric work What Is Satire? Humorous, witty Clever, sarcastic Criticizes event, person, group Introduction to Gulliver’s Travels Jonathan’s best fictional work was published in 1726 Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World, by Samuel Gulliver. The book contains four parts, each dealing with one particular voyage during which Gulliver meets with extraordinary adventures on some remote island after he has met with shipwreck of piracy of some other misfortune. Lemuel Gulliver Narrator of novel Middle-aged, middle class, British Intelligent, well-educated Naïve Unaffectionate to wife A doctor on a Royal Navy ship who washes up on the shores of several fictional countries. Upon returning to England, he is painfully aware of his country’s flaws. Mrs. Mary Burton: Mrs. Mary Burton is Gulliver's wife. He only states her name at the beginning of the novel, and thereafter refers to her as his wife. She is mentioned only during his rare time in England. Captain William Pritchard: Captain Pritchard is the head of the ship named Antelope. He controls Gulliver's first voyage in which a storm overtakes the ship, leaving Gulliver stranded on the strange land of Lilliput. A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT The first part tells about his experience in Lilliput The emperor believed himself to be the delight and terror of the universe, but it appeared quite absurd to Gulliver who was twelve times as tall as he. In his account of the two parties in the country, distinguished by the use of high and low heels. Religious disputes were laughed at in an account of a problem which divided the Lilliputians: “ Should eggs be broken at the big end or the little end?” Main Characters Lilliputians Inhabit Lilliput Only 6 inches tall Prone to conspiracies and jealousies Emperor Ruler of the Lilliputians Despite small size, loves being in control, exercising his power, and his large palace Gulliver visits Lilliput Meet the Lilliputians He finds that the population is split between 'Big Enders' and 'Little Enders‘ The Emperor who is keen to go to war with Belfuscu and the defecting 'Big Enders‘ The Empress who originally likes Gulliver, but is then offended when he urinates on buildings to put out a fire A VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG Second Journey to Brobdingnag In the second part, Gulliver is left alone in Brobdingnag where people are not only ten times taller and larger than ordinary human beings, but also superior in wisdom. Gulliver now found himself a dwarf among men sixth feet in height. The king, who regarded Europe as if it were an anthill. Gulliver sold and used as a slave, mostly used for entertainment purposes Discusses history and policies of his native country with the King Main Characters Brobdingnagians Giants that inhabit Brobdingnag Reasonable, gentle The Queen Sweet, kind Humorous, witty The King Intellectual, rational Does not know much about politics A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, BALNIBARBI, LUGGNAGG, GLUBBDUBDRIB, AND JAPAN The third part deals with mainly with his accidental visit to the flying Island, where the philosophers and projectors devote all their time and energy to the study of some absurd problems. Their scientists are engaged in projects for exacting sunbeams out of cucumbers, turning ice into gunpowder and making cloth from cobweb. Laputans Inhabitants of the flying island of Laputa which has diameter of 7837 yards. Munodi A Lord who lives in Lagado the metropolis of Balnibari Professors of various academies who take up Gulliver's suggestions Governor of Glubbdubdrib Struldbruggs who offer eternal life but become progressively senile in doing so. Maldonada A port Guldubdribb land of sorcerers Glangluenstand port of embarkation from Luggnagg Xamoschi landfall in Japan Nangasac where he meets Captain Theodorus Vangrult with whom he sailed back to England. A VOYAGE TO THE COUNTRY OF THE Houynhms Final Journey to the Country of the Houyhnhnms Horses rule the deformed Yahoos Gulliver banished from their society Feel he is a threat to their civilization Aware he has a resemblance to a Yahoo Summary of Last Book The last part is a most interesting account of his discoveries in the Houyhnhnm land, where horses are endowed with reason and all good and admirable qualities, and are the governing class. Contrary to the Houyhnhnms, the Yahoos possess every conceivable evil. They are malicious, spiteful, envious, unclean and greedy. Gulliver admires the life and ways of the horses, as much as he is disgusted with the Yahoos, whose relations remind him of those existing in English society to such a degree that he shudders at the prospect of returning to his native. Main Characters Yahoos Yahoo’s an uncouth human like race Dirty, hairy, primitive, but humanlike Many different kinds Blonde, redheaded, dark-haired Servants of Houyhnhnms Houyhnhnms A horse-like race who rule over the unruly Live in peaceful, simple society Rule with reason and truthfulness Do not even have the word “lie” in their vocabulary The end of the novel The author takes his last leave of the reader; proposes his manner of living for the future; gives good advice, and concludes.