Test #1 Notes * Con*t Concept Map #2

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Test #1 Notes – Con’t
Concept Map #2
Classification of
Matter
The Phases (States) of Matter
1. Solid (s)
* definite shape & definite volume
* particles are in a regular, geometric pattern or crystalline shape
* particles vibrate in fixed positions
2. Liquid (l)
* take shape of container, definite volume
* particles can flow
3. Gas (g)
* expand to completely fill container
* no definite shape or volume
Note - Vapor refers to a substance that is not normally a gas.
(aq) = Aqueous = the substance is dissolved in water.
Phases – con’t
4. The phases differ due to differences in the:
a) arrangement or distance between their particles
b) attraction between their particles.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s-KvoVzukHo&feature=related
Solid
Liquid
Gas
The Three Classes of Matter:
Elements
Compounds
Mixtures
Matter
Substance
(fixed composition)
Elements
Compounds
Mixtures of Substances
(composition varies)
Heterogeneous
Homogeneous
Suspensions
Solutions
(these are homogeneous)
Models
1. Elements (made of a single kind of atom)
Monatomic Element
He
or
Diatomic Element
H2
2. Compounds
(hook different atoms together to show they are chemically combined)
Water is a compound (H2O)
3. Mixtures
(the different substances aren’t hooked – shows they are physically combined)
Mixture of
Water (H2O) & Oxygen (O2)
Elements
1. Elements are substances composed of atoms
that cannot be broken down any further.
2. A particular element contains atoms having the
same atomic number.
3. Some examples: Iron (Fe) or Hydrogen (H2)
Elements – con’t
4.
Some elements exist in several different forms.
They have different structures & different
properties. (Allotropes)
Example: Forms of solid Carbon
Elements – con’t
Example: Forms of Oxygen gas
Most oxygen in the air is O2. This is the
odorless gas that sustains life.
Ozone is O3. Ozone gas has a sharp odor and
damages respiratory tissue.
Compounds
1. Compounds are substances composed of
atoms from 2 or more different elements
chemically combined in a fixed or definite
ratio.
2. The compound’s properties are not the same
as its component’s original properties.
Examples: Water (H2O)
Sodium Chloride (NaCl)
Mixtures
1. Mixtures are composed of 2 or more different
substances physically combined in any ratio.
2. The composition of a mixture is not fixed. For
example grape juice may be really sweet or
tart.
3. The components of a mixture keep (or retain)
their original individual properties.
Examples:
Raisin Bran, Chex Mix, Koolaid, Italian Salad
Dressing
E, C, or M?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
NH3(g)
Br2(l)
H2SO4(aq)
Cu(s)
NaCl(s)
NaCl(aq)
Answers: C, E, M, E, C, M
Homogeneous Mixtures
You cannot see the different parts because the
particles are uniformly or evenly mixed
resulting in constant properties throughout
that sample.
Examples: Kool-Aid, Air, Milk, Saltwater.
Heterogeneous Mixture
You can see visibly different parts because the
particles are NOT uniformly mixed.
Examples: Soil, Vegetable soup, Trail mix,
Lucky charms
Miscible vs Immiscible
1. Miscible refers to mixtures of liquids that
dissolve in each other
Example: water & vinegar
2. Immiscible refers to mixtures of liquids that
separate (don’t dissolve)
Example: water & oil
Solutions
1. A solution is a homogeneous mixture containing a solute
dissolved in a solvent.
Example: sugar water C12H22O11 (aq)
(aq) = aqueous = dissolved in water
2. The solute (sugar) is the substance dissolved.
3. The solvent (water) does the dissolving.
4. They cannot be separated by filtration.
Note: If a solid dissolves, we say it is soluble.
Suspensions
1. A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture of
an insoluble solid suspended in a liquid.
2. The insoluble solid doesn’t dissolve, it will
settle on standing.
3. An example is cornstarch mixed in water.
4. They can be separated by filtration.
Separation of Mixtures
1. The components in a mixtures can be
separated physically - based on differences in
properties such as color, density, solubility,
etc.
2. Some examples: (see pictures)
Filtration (particle size)
Chromatography (absorption)
Distillation (boiling point)
Filtration
In filtration, larger solid particles are separated
from smaller liquid particles by passing the
mixture through a filter.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P6yhfd2i0cw&feature=relmfu
Distillation
Distillation uses differences in the boiling
points to separate a homogeneous mixture
into its components.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xxNfJLMNS4E
Chromatography
Separation of components of black ink
Chromatography separates substances in a
mixture based on differences in absorption
up a strip of paper dipped in a solvent.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=08YMBGS1pYU
Separation of Compounds
Occurs only by chemical reaction
Example: Decomposition of water into
hydrogen and oxygen gas
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EE58a5fN468

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