Smart Energy Profile Distributed Energy

Smart Energy Profile
Distributed Energy Resources
Tom Herbst
Smart Energy Profile
• Utility Protocol/Home Device
• Home Area Network (HAN)
• Has traditionally been developed in ZigBee
Smart Energy Profile
• Residential/Small Business
• US, Canada, UK, Australia
• Other Solutions
– Germany – Wireless Mbus
– Proprietary – Zwave
– OpenADR
• C&I Focused
– 61850
• Electrical Substations
Smart Energy Profile
• Real time Power consumption info to home
• Demand Response Load Shed requests
– Thermostats (A/C or Electric Heat)
– Electric Water Heaters
– Pool Pumps
• Price information
– Electricity per kilowatt hour (TOU, Dynamic)
• Display with any or all of this
Smart Energy Profile
• 1.0/1.1 – 802.15.4 (2.4ghz) ZigBee Specific
– ZigBee Pro, ZigBee Cluster Libraries
• 2.0 – mac/phy agnostic
– IPv6, TLS, HTTP, XML, m-DNS, RESTful
• Potentially DTLS, CoAP, investigating EXI encoding
• Data elements defined in IEC TC57 - CIM
– HomePlug & WIFI Alliances
Distributed Energy Resources
• Solar
• Storage - Battery
• CoGen
– Fuel Cell
– Internal Combustion
Utility Solar Generation
Large Scale Solar
• Requires distribution system study
– May require system upgrades
• Requires dedicated realtime monitoring and
• SCADA system – part of Distribution
Automation – to a control console
– 61850
– DNP3
Residential Solar – SEP2.0
Utility Issues with DER
• No visibility to generation (Kw or Volts) by DER
• Intermittent generation can introduce power
grid instability – especially solar and wind
• Impact of changing Inverter parameters
No Visibility to Generation
• Need to provide “spinning reserve” when
generation goes off line
• Over voltage issues in high penetration
– Inverters falling off – 1547 over voltage
• How much is being produced, when?
• Revenue Grade
– Power Purchase Agreements
– Renewables Credits
• Non-revenue grade
– Useful for utility operations staff
• Same structure as utility meter information
– Common Display device
DER Status
• Generator/Inverter - server
• ESI (utility meter) is a client
• Detailed information about the configuration
and state of the DER system
– DC power
– Temperatures
• Much of the same info as in SunSpec
– Could be used for monitoring
Utility Issues – Intermittent Generation
• VAR Support – may reduce voltage flux
• Watt Curtailment may reduce impact of
• Low Voltage ride through may prevent domino
• EPRI – Common Functions for Smart Inverters
DER Control
ESI - server/Inverter - Client
Perform Disconnect/Reconnect
Perform Watt Curtailment
Set low voltage ride through
Define volt/var curves
Instantiate volt/var curves
Some functions are randomized to avoid
synchronized effects
• Tiered/Block, TOU
• Feed-in Tariff
• Could be used to dispatch CoGen or storage
Why communications?
• We don’t yet which combinations of
parameters or settings will resolve the issues
• Needs to be custom and changeable
• Utilities have an obligation to run a well
managed grid
– Must maintain delta between generation and load
• Cal ISO $250M in fines for 2002/$11M PG&E
• Discussions of requiring storage
• Utilities are not required to accept

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