What Is a Computer?

Report
Chapter 1
Basic Introduction to Computers
Discovering
Computers 2012
Your Interactive Guide
to the Digital World
Objectives Overview
Discuss the special
information
requirements of an
enterprise-sized
corporation
Identify information
systems and software
used in the functional
units of an enterprise
Describe and list general
purpose and integrated
information systems
used throughout an
enterprise
Explain why computer
literacy is vital to success
in today’s world
Define the term,
computer, and describe
the relationship
between data and
information
Describe the five
components of a
computer
Discuss the advantages
and disadvantages that
users experience when
working with computers
Define the term,
network, and identify
benefits of sharing
resources on a network
Discuss the uses of the
Internet and World Wide
Web
See Page 3
for Detailed Objectives
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
2
Objectives Overview
Distinguish between system
software and application
software
Differentiate among types,
sizes, and functions of
computers in each category
Explain how home users,
small office/home office
users, mobile users, power
users, and enterprise users
each interact with
computers
See Page 3
for Detailed Objectives
Describe the role of each
element in an information
system
Discuss how society uses
computers in education,
finance, government, health
care, science, publishing,
travel, and manufacturing
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
3
A World of Computers
• Computers are everywhere
Pages 4 - 5
Figure 1-1
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
4
What Is Enterprise Computing?
• Enterprise computing involves the use of computers in networks,
such as LANs and WANs, or a series of interconnected networks
that encompass a variety of different operating systems, protocols,
and network architectures
Pages 720 – 721
Figure 14-1
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 14
5
What Is Enterprise Computing?
• Types of enterprises include:
Retail
Manufacturing
Service
Wholesale
Government
Educational
Transportation
Page 722
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 14
6
What Is Enterprise Computing?
• Most traditional enterprises are organized in a
hierarchical manner
Pages 722 – 723
Figure 14-2
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 14
7
What Is Enterprise Computing?
• In an enterprise, users typically fall into one of
four categories:
Executive
Management
Middle
Management
Operational Management
Nonmanagement Employees
Page 724
Figure 14-3
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 14
8
What Is Enterprise Computing?
• Enterprise information is the information
gathered in the ongoing operations of an
enterprise-sized organization
– Business intelligence
– Business process management
– Business process automation
Pages 725 - 726
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 14
9
What Is Enterprise Computing?
• Managers coordinate resources by performing
four activities
Planning
Controlling
Organizing
Leading
Page 725
Figure 14-4
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 14
10
Information Systems in the Enterprise
• An information system is a set of hardware,
software, data, people, and procedures that work
together to produce information
Page 726
Figure 14-5
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 14
11
Information Systems in the Enterprise
• Functional units within an enterprise might
include:
Marketing
Manufacturing
Sales
Engineering or
Product
Development
Distribution
Human
Resources
Accounting
and Finance
Page 727
Customer
Service
Enterprise
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 14
Information
Technology
12
Information Systems in the Enterprise
• Accounting software manages everyday transactions
• Billing software helps the company reconcile purchases
with customer payments
• Financial software helps managers budget, forecast, and
analyze
Pages 726 – 728
Figure 14-7
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 14
13
Information Systems in the Enterprise
• A human resources
information system (HRIS)
manages one or more
human resources functions
• Employee relationship
management systems
manage communication
between employees and
the business
Page 728
Figure 14-8
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 14
14
Information Systems in the Enterprise
• Computer-aided design (CAD) uses a computer and
special software to aid in engineering, drafting, and
design
• Computer-aided engineering (CAE) uses computers to
test product designs
Pages 728 – 729
Figure 14-9
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 14
15
Information Systems in the Enterprise
• Computer-aided
manufacturing (CAM) is
the use of computers to
control production
equipment
• Computer-integrated
manufacturing (CIM) uses
computers to integrate
the many different
operations of the
manufacturing process
Page 729
Figure 14-10
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 14
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Information Systems in the Enterprise
Material Requirements
Planning (MRP) uses
software to help monitor and
control processes related to
production
Manufacturing Resource
Planning II (MRP II) is an
extension of MRP and also
includes software that helps
in scheduling
Pages 729 - 730
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 14
17
Information Systems in the Enterprise
A quality control system helps an
organization maintain or improve the
quality of its products or services
A marketing information system serves
as a central repository for the tasks of
a marketing department
Page 730
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 14
18
Information Systems in the Enterprise
• Sales force automation (SFA) software equips
traveling salespeople with the electronic tools
they need to be more productive
Pages 730 – 731
Figure 14-12
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 14
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Information Systems in the Enterprise
• Distribution systems perform the following
functions:
Provide forecasting
for inventory
control
Manage and track
shipping of
products
Provide information
and analysis on
inventory in a
warehouse
Page 731
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 14
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Information Systems in the Enterprise
• Customer interaction management (CIM)
software manages the day-to-day interactions
with customers
Page 731
Figure 14-13
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 14
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Information Systems in the Enterprise
• The information technology (IT) department makes
technology decisions for the enterprise
– Whether to build or buy new information systems
– When a computer or information system has outlived its useful
life
• Web site management programs collect data designed to
help organizations make informed decisions regarding
their Web presence
Page 732
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 14
22
Information Systems in the Enterprise
• General purpose information systems generally
fall into one of five categories
Office
Information
System
Transaction
Processing
System
Decision
Support
System
Page 732
Management
Information
System
Expert System
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 14
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Information Systems in the Enterprise
• Batch processing vs. online transaction processing
Page 733
Figure 14-14
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 14
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Information Systems in the Enterprise
Management Information System
Pages 734 – 735
Figures 14-15 – 14-16
Decision Support System
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 14
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Information Systems in the Enterprise
Page 736
Figure 14-17
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 14
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Information Systems in the Enterprise
Integrated Information Systems
Customer relationship
Enterprise resource
management manages
planning provides
information about
centralized, integrated
customers,
software to help
interactions with
manage and
customers, past
coordinate ongoing
purchases, and
activities
interests
Pages 737 - 739
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 14
Content management
systems are
information systems
that combine
databases, software,
and procedures
27
Information Systems in the Enterprise
Page 738
Figure 14-18
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 14
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Information Systems in the Enterprise
Page 739
Figure 14-19
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 14
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What Is a Computer?
• A computer is an electronic device, operating
under the control of instructions stored in its own
memory
Collects
data
(input)
Processing
Produces
information
(output)
Information Processing Cycle
Page 6
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
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What Is a Computer?
Page 6
Figure 1-2
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
31
The Components of a Computer
• A computer contains many electric, electronic, and
mechanical components known as hardware
Input Device
Output Device
• Allows you to enter data and instructions into a computer
• Hardware component that conveys information to one or more people
System Unit
• Case that contains the electronic components of the computer that
are used to process data
Storage Device
• Records (writes) and/or retrieves (reads) items to and from storage
media
Communications
Device
• Enables a computer to send and receive data, instructions, and
information to and from one or more computers or mobile devices
Pages 6 - 8
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
32
The Components of a Computer
Page 7
Figure 1-3
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
33
Advantages and Disadvantages
of Using Computers
Pages 9 - 10
Advantages of
Using Computers
Disadvantages of
Using Computers
Speed
Health Risks
Reliability
Violation of Privacy
Consistency
Public Safety
Storage
Impact on Labor Force
Communications
Impact on Environment
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
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Advantages and Disadvantages
of Using Computers
• Green computing involves reducing the electricity
consumed and environmental waste generated when
using a computer
• Strategies include:
–
–
–
–
Page 10
Recycling
Regulating manufacturing processes
Extending the life of computers
Immediately donating or properly disposing of replaced computers
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
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Networks and the Internet
• A network is a
collection of computers
and devices connected
together, often
wirelessly, via
communications
devices and
transmission media
Pages 10 - 11
Figure 1-6
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
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Networks and the Internet
• The Internet is a worldwide collection of networks that
connects millions of businesses, government agencies,
educational institutions, and individuals
Page 11
Figure 1-7
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
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Networks and the Internet
• People use the Internet for a variety of reasons:
Communicate
Research and
Access Information
Entertainment
Pages 12 - 13
Figure 1-8
Download Videos
Shop
Bank and Invest
Share Information
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
Online Trading
Web Application
38
Networks and the Internet
• A social networking Web site encourages
members to share their interests, ideas, stories,
photos, music, and videos with other registered
users
Page 14
Figure 1-9
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
39
Computer Software
• Software, also called a program, tells the
computer what tasks to perform and how to
perform them
System Software
• Operating system
• Utility program
Application Software
Pages 15 - 16
Figures 1-10 - 1-11
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
40
Computer Software
• Installing is the process of setting up software to
work with the computer, printer, and other
hardware
Pages 16 - 17
Figure 1-12
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
41
Computer Software
• A programmer develops
software or writes the
instructions that direct
the computer to
process data into
information
Page 18
Figure 1-13
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
42
Categories of Computers
Personal computers
Mobile computers and mobile devices
Game consoles
Servers
Mainframes
Supercomputers
Embedded computers
Page 19
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
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Personal Computers
• A personal computer can perform all of its input,
processing, output, and storage activities by itself
• Two popular architectures are the PC and the
Apple
– Desktop computer
Pages 19 - 20
Figures 1-15 - 1-16
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
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Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices
Mobile
Computer
Pages 20 - 23
Mobile
Device
Personal computer you
can carry from place to
place
Computing device small
enough to hold in your
hand
Examples include
notebook computers,
laptop computers,
netbooks, ultra-thins,
and Tablet PCs
Examples include smart
phones and PDAs, ebook readers, handheld
computers, portable
media players, and
digital cameras
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
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Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices
Notebook computer
Tablet PC
Smart phones and PDAs
E-book reader
Pages 20 - 22
Figures 1-17 – 1-20
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
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Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices
Handheld computer
Portable media player
Digital camera
Pages 22 - 23
Figures 1-21 – 1-23
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
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Game Consoles
• A game console is a
mobile computing
device designed for
single-player or
multiplayer video
games
Page 24
Figure 1-24
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
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Servers
• A server controls access
to the hardware,
software, and other
resources on a network
– Provides a centralized
storage area for
programs, data, and
information
Page 25
Figure 1-25
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
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Mainframes
• A mainframe is a large,
expensive, powerful
computer that can
handle hundreds or
thousands of connected
users simultaneously
Page 25
Figure 1-26
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
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Supercomputers
• A supercomputer is the fastest, most powerful
computer
– Fastest supercomputers are capable of processing
more than one quadrillion instructions in a single
second
Page 25
Figure 1-27
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
51
Embedded Computers
• An embedded computer is a special-purpose
computer that functions as a component in a
larger product
Consumer
Electronics
• Mobile and digital
telephones
• Digital televisions
• Cameras
• Video recorders
• DVD players and
recorders
• Answering
machines
Page 26
Home Automation
Devices
Automobiles
• Thermostats
• Sprinkling systems
• Security
monitoring systems
• Appliances
• Lights
• Antilock brakes
• Engine control
modules
• Airbag controller
• Cruise control
Process Controllers
and Robotics
• Remote monitoring
systems
• Power monitors
• Machine
controllers
• Medical devices
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
Computer Devices
and Office Machines
• Keyboards
• Printers
• Faxes
• Copiers
52
Embedded Computers
Page 26
Figure 1-28
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
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Elements of an Information System
Hardware
Software
People
Page 27
Data
Procedures
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
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Elements of an Information System
Page 27
Figure 1-29
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
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Examples of Computer Usage
Home User
• Personal financial
management
• Web access
• Communications
• Entertainment
Pages 28 – 31
Figures 1-30 – 1-32
Small Office/Home
Office User
• Look up information
• Send and receive e-mail
messages
• Make telephone calls
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
Mobile User
• Connect to other computers
on a network or the Internet
• Transfer information
• Play video games
• Listen to music
• Watch movies
56
Examples of Computer Usage
Pages 31 – 32
Figures 1-33 – 1-34
Power User
Enterprise User
• Work with multimedia
• Use industry-specific
software
• Communicate among
employees
• Process high volumes
of transactions
• Blog
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
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Computer Applications in Society
Education
Finance
Government
Health Care
Pages 34 - 36
Figures 1-36 – 1-39
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
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Computer Applications in Society
Science
Publishing
Travel
Manufacturing
Pages 36 - 38
Figures 1-40 – 1-43
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
59
Video: Computer History in a Barn
CLICK TO START
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
60
Summary
Special computing
requirements present
in an enterprise-sized
organization
Page 39
Various types of
users within an
organization
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
Large information
systems
61
Summary
Basic computer
concepts
Components of a
computer
Networks, the Internet,
and computer software
Many different
categories of
computers, computer
users, and computer
applications in society
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1
62
Chapter 1
Basic Introduction to Computers
Discovering
Computers 2012
Your Interactive Guide
to the Digital World
Chapter 1 Complete

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