Lab: Ions in Aqueous Solution

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Ions in Aqueous Solution
Pb(NO3)2(s) + H2O(l)
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Pb(NO3)2(aq)
Pb2+(aq) + 2 NO31–(aq)
Pb2+
NO31–
add
water
NO31–
Pb2+
NO31–
dissociation:
NaI(s) + H2O(l)
Na1+
I1–
NO31–
NaI(aq)
Na1+(aq) + I1–(aq)
Na1+
I1–
Mix them and get…
Balance to get overall ionic equation…
Cancel spectator ions to get net ionic equation…
in solution
Solubility
Chart
Mix them and get…
Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2 NaI(aq)
Pb2+
PbI2(s) + 2 NO31–(aq) + 2 Na1+(aq)
I1–
NO31–
Pb2+
NO31–
Na1+
I1–
Na1+
solid
I1–
NO31–
in solution
Na1+
I1–
Na1+
NO31–
Balance to get overall ionic equation…
Pb2+(aq) + 2 NO31–(aq) + 2 Na1+(aq) + 2 I1–(aq)
PbI2(s) + 2 NO31–(aq) + 2 Na1+(aq)
Cancel spectator ions to get net ionic equation…
Pb2+(aq) + 2 I1–(aq)
PbI2(s)
Solubility
Chart
Mix together Zn(NO3)2(aq) and Ba(OH)2(aq):
Mix them and get…
Zn(NO3)2(aq) + Ba(OH)2(aq)
Zn(OH)2(s) + 2 NO31–(aq) + Ba2+(aq)
Zn(NO3)2(aq)
Ba(OH)2(aq)
Zn2+(aq) + 2 NO31–(aq)
Ba2+(aq) + 2 OH1–(aq)
OH1–
NO31–
Ba2+
Zn2+
NO31–
OH1–
Balance to get overall ionic equation…
Zn2+(aq) + 2 NO31–(aq) + Ba2+(aq) + 2OH1–(aq)
Zn(OH)2(s) + 2 NO31–(aq) + Ba2+(aq)
Cancel spectator ions to get net ionic equation…
Zn2+(aq) + 2 OH1–(aq)
Zn(OH)2(s)
Pre-lab:
1. What ions are present in the following solutions?
Na1+(aq) Cl1-(aq)
NaCl(aq)  ____________________
AgNO3(aq)

1+
1-
Ag (aq) NO3 (aq)
____________________
2. When these solutions are mixed together, a precipitate is seen. What are the new
combinations of ions that could have formed the precipitate?
1+
1+
1-
1-
Ag (aq) Cl (aq)
Na (aq) NO3 (aq) and ____________________
____________________
3. Using the solubility table, which new combination will form a precipitate?
Ag1+(aq) Cl1-(aq)  AgCl(s)
____________________
4. Which new combination will remain in solution?
1+
1-
Na (aq) NO3 (aq)
____________________
5. Write the overall reaction equation for this reaction. Be sure to indicate the correct
phase (reaction condition) for each reactant and each product.
Na1+(aq) + Cl1-(aq) + Ag1+(aq) + NO31-(aq)
AgCl(s) + Na1+(aq) + NO31-(aq)
6. Write the net ionic equation for this reaction. Again, include the phases (reaction
conditions).
1+
1-
Ag (aq) + Cl (aq)
AgCl(s)
7. Explain why you would expect no reaction between solutions of KOH(aq) and NaOH(aq).
When the cations switch places they end with a hydroxide
(no new combination is formed)
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Key
Reactions Between Ions in Aqueous Solutions
spectator ions
2.
Co2+(aq) + 2 NO31-(aq) + 2 K1+(aq) + 2 OH1-(aq)
Co2+(aq) + 2 OH1-(aq)
3.
Co2+(aq) + 2 NO31-(aq) + 2 Na1+(aq) + 2 OH1-(aq)
Co2+(aq) + 2 OH1-(aq)
9.
Pb2+(aq) + 2 NO31-(aq) + 2 K1+(aq) + 2 OH1- (aq)
Pb2+(aq) + 2 OH1-(aq)
10.
Pb2+(aq) + 2 NO31-(aq) + 2 Na1+(aq) + 2 OH1-(aq)
Pb2+(aq) + 2 OH1-(aq)
11.
Pb2+(aq) + 2 NO31-(aq) + Co2+(aq) + 2 Cl1-(aq)
Pb2+(aq) + 2 Cl1-(aq)
12.
3 Pb2+(aq) + 6 NO31-(aq) + 2 Fe3+(aq) + 6 Cl1-(aq)
Pb2+(aq) + 2 Cl1-(aq)
Co(OH)2(s) + 2 K1+(aq) + 2 NO31-(aq)
Co(OH)2(s)
Co(OH)2(s) + 2 Na1+(aq) + 2 NO31-(aq)
Co(OH)2(s)
Pb(OH)2(s) + 2 K1+(aq) + 2 NO31-(aq)
Pb(OH)2(s)
Pb(OH)2(s) + 2 Na1+(aq) + 2 NO31-(aq)
Pb(OH)2(s)
PbCl2(s) + Co2+(aq) + 2 NO31-(aq)
PbCl2(s)
3 PbCl2(s) + 2 Fe3+(aq) + 6 NO31-(aq)
PbCl2(s)
Key
Reactions Between Ions in Aqueous Solutions
15.
Cu2+(aq) + 2 NO31-(aq) + 2 K1+(aq) + 2 OH1-(aq)
Cu2+(aq) + 2 OH1-(aq)
16.
Cu2+(aq) + 2 NO31-(aq) + 2 Na1+(aq) + 2 OH1-(aq)
Cu2+(aq) + 2 OH1-(aq)
20.
Fe3+(aq) + 3 Cl1-(aq) + 3 K1+(aq) + 3 OH1-(aq)
Fe3+(aq) + 3 OH1-(aq)
21.
Fe3+(aq) + 3 Cl1-(aq) + 3 Na1+(aq) + 3 OH1-(aq)
Fe3+(aq) + 3 OH1-(aq)
24.
Co2+(aq) + 2 Cl1-(aq) + 2 K1+(aq) + 2 OH1-(aq)
Co2+(aq) + 2 OH1-(aq)
25.
Co2+(aq) + 2 Cl1-(aq) + 2 Na1+(aq) + 2 OH1-(aq)
Co2+(aq) + 2 OH1-(aq)
Cu(OH)2(s) + 2 K1+(aq) + 2 NO31-(aq)
Cu(OH)2(s)
Cu(OH)2(s) + 2 Na1+(aq) + 2 NO31-(aq)
Cu(OH)2(s)
Fe(OH)3(s) + 3 K1+(aq) + 3 Cl1-(aq)
Fe(OH)3(s)
Fe(OH)3(s) + 3 Na1+(aq) + 3 Cl1-(aq)
Fe(OH)3(s)
Co(OH)2(s) + 2 K1+(aq) + 2 Cl1-(aq)
Co(OH)2(s)
Co(OH)2(s) + 2 Na1+(aq) + 2 Cl1-(aq)
Co(OH)2(s)
acetate
bromide
carbonate
chloride
chromate
hydroxide
iodide
nitrate
phosphate
sulfate
sulfide
TABLE OF SOLUBILITIES IN WATER
aluminum
ss
s
n
s
n
i
s
s
i
s
d
ammonium
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
barium
s
s
i
s
i
s
s
s
i
i
d
calcium
s
s
i
s
s
ss
s
s
i
ss
d
copper (II)
s
s
i
s
i
i
n
s
i
s
i
iron (II)
s
s
i
s
n
i
s
s
i
s
i
iron (III)
s
s
n
s
i
i
n
s
i
ss
d
lead
s
ss
i
ss
i
i
ss
s
i
i
i
magnesium
s
s
i
s
s
i
s
s
i
s
d
mercury (I)
ss
i
i
i
ss
n
i
s
i
ss
i
mercury (II)
s
ss
i
s
ss
i
i
s
i
d
i
potassium
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
silver
ss
i
i
i
ss
n
i
s
i
ss
i
sodium
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
zinc
s
s
i
s
s
i
s
s
i
s
i
Legend
SOLID
i = insoluble
SOLIDsoluble
ss = slightly
AQUEOUS
s = soluble
d = decomposes
n = not isolated
acetate
bromide
carbonate
chloride
chromate
hydroxide
iodide
nitrate
phosphate
sulfate
sulfide
TABLE OF SOLUBILITIES IN WATER
aluminum
s
aq
n
s
n
s
aq
aq
s
aq
d
ammonium
aq
aq
aq
aq
aq
aq
aq
aq
aq
aq
aq
barium
aq
aq
s
aq
s
aq
aq
aq
s
s
d
calcium
aq
aq
s
aq
aq
ss
aq
aq
s
s
d
copper (II)
aq
aq
s
aq
s
s
n
aq
s
aq
s
iron (II)
aq
aq
s
aq
n
s
s
aq
s
aq
s
iron (III)
aq
aq
n
aq
s
s
n
aq
s
s
d
lead
aq
s
s
ss
s
s
s
aq
s
s
s
magnesium
aq
aq
s
aq
aq
s
aq
aq
s
aq
d
mercury (I)
s
s
s
s
s
n
s
aq
s
s
si
mercury (II)
aq
s
s
aq
s
s
s
aq
s
d
si
potassium
aq
aq
aq
aq
aq
aq
aq
aq
aq
aq
aq
silver
s
s
s
s
s
n
s
s
s
s
s
sodium
aq
aq
aq
aq
aq
aq
aq
aq
aq
aq
aq
zinc
aq
aq
s
aq
aq
s
aq
aq
s
aq
s
Legend
s = solid
aq = aqueous
d = decomposes
n = not isolated

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