Chemistry: Extended Experimental Investigation

Report
Practical Activity A – Preparation of Carbon Dioxide: Pre-lab Safety Information
Material
Hazard
Control
Magnesium carbonate
Skin, eye and lung irritant
Wear eye and skin protection; avoid
breating dust
Sodium hydrogen carbonate
Slightly toxic if ingested
Wear eye and skin protection
0.1 M hydrochloric acid
Corrosive to eyes and skin
Wear eye and skin protection
Lime water (Ca(OH)₂)
Slightly toxic if ingested; can burn skin
and eyes
Wear eye and skin protection
Practical Activity B – Properties of Carbon Dioxide: Pre-lab Safety Information
Material
Hazard
Control
Methylated spirits
Highly flammable
Keep away from naked flame; wear eye
and skin protection
Universal indicator
Irritant to eyes and skin
Wear eye and skin protection
Practical Activity C – Properties of Dry Ice: Pre-lab Safety Information
Material
Hazard
Control
Dry ice
May cause severe burns
Handle with adequately thick gloves
and tongs
Universal indicators
Irritant to eyes and skin
Wear eye and skin protection
0.1 M Sodium hydroxide
Corrosive to skin and eyes
Wear eye and skin protection
Practical Activity D – Soda Water: acidity and effect on heating: Pre-lab Safety Information
Material
Hazard
Control
Universal indicator
Irritant to eyes and skin
Wear eye and skin protection
Practical Activity E – Comparing cans of cola: Pre-lab Safety Information
Material
Hazard
Control
Lime water (Ca(OH)₂)
Slightly toxic if ingested; can burn
skin and eyes
Wear eye and skin protection
Boiling Coke
May spontaneously explode; keep
fair distance whilst boiling
Wear eye and skin protection; wear
gloves when handling
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Add about 3mL of Lime water (Ca(OH)₂) into a
test-tube. Use a drinking straw to gently blow air
through the solution until it becomes a cloudy
state.
Pour about 25mL of 10% glucose solution into a
100mL conical flask and then add as much yeast
as can be accumulated onto a 10c piece.
Stopper the flask with a single-holed stopper
connected to a short length of glass tubing.
Attach a 30cm rubber tubing and a glass delivery
tube around 15 cm in length.
Add around 10mL of lime water to a clean testtube and stand it in a test-tube rack with the
flask of fermenting liquid. Insert the delivery
tube from the flask into the lime water test-tube.
Set the apparatus aside in a room for around 1-2
days.
Note the odour of the fermenting liquid. Record
your observations.
CHEMICAL
REACTIONS
Experiment: A
Experiment: B
CO2(G) + CaOH2(L)  CaCO3(S) +
H2O (L)
CaCO₃ (s)  CaO (s) + CO₂
CO₂ (g) + H₂O (l) 
CO₂ (g) +H₂O (l) 
(g)
H₂CO₃ (aq)
H₂CO₃ (aq)
How dissolved CO₂
makes soda water
acidic
CO₂ reacting with Ca(OH)₂.
C₆H₁₂O₆ (aq)  C₂H₅OH (aq) + 2CO₂
(g)
Production of CO₂ from fermented
glucose.
MgCO₃ (s)  MgO (aq) + CO₂ (g)
Prod. Of CO₂ from decomposition of
magnesium carbonate by heat.
NaHCO₃ (s) + HCl ( )  NaCl (aq) +
CO₂ (g) +H₂O (l)
Prod. Of CO₂ from addition of
hydrochloric acid to sodium
hydrogen carbonate.
CH₄ (g) + 2CO₂ (g)  C (g) + 2H₂O (g)
When air hole of bunsen burner is
closed.
CH₄ (g) + 2CO₂ (g)  CO₂ (g) + 2H₂O
(g)
When bunsen burner is open.
CaCO₃ (s) + 2HCl (aq)  CaCl₂ (aq) +
H₂O (l) + CO₂ (g)
Prod. Of CO₂ in Kipp’s apparatus.
CO₂ (g) + Ca(OH)₂ (aq) 
CaCO₃ (s) + H₂O (l)
After the solution is left to
settle, calcium carbonate
forms back in the reaction.
Experiment: C
Experiment: D
Experiment:
E
CaO (aq) + CO₂
(g)  CaCO₃ (s)
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One of the greatest use of carbon dioxide is as a chemical in the
production of carbonated beverages; produces the sparkle and fizz in
beverages such as soda water.
Carbon dioxide is also formed by the activity of yeast or baking
powder, which is the logical reason why bread dough rises whilst
heated in the oven.
In fire extinguishers, large amounts of carbon dioxide is compacted in
the cylinder and ejected through the nozzle and settles on flames;
suffocating the flame and putting it out.
The solid form of carbon dioxide, known as ‘dry ice’, is used as a
refrigerating cooling-agent or for producing mist.
The most common use of carbon dioxide by all plant life is in the
process known as ‘photosynthesis’, in which they produce their food
with glucose and the byproduct being oxygen.
Carbon dioxide plays an important role in Earth’s greenhouse effect as
it regulates Earth’s temperature by keeping the sun’s heat inside Earth’s
atmosphere. However, due to human industrial activities and such,
carbon dioxide has accumulated and increased over the many years and
is genuinely ‘absorbing’ too much of the sun’s heat.
Human activities that have contributed to Earth’s atmospheric issues:
- Burning of fossil fuels: Major issue with carbon dioxide outbreak as
fossil fuels have been used to produce electricity and for everyday use
by humans for purposes such as; transportation, technological use, etc.
- Deforestation: Clearing of forests and trees have contributed to
decreasing photosynthetic plants and disrupting the balance of
oxygen/carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Less trees = more carbon
dioxide.
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Chemistry Practical Booklet – Unit 2
Practical Activity A-E – Carbon Dioxide
http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0810371.html
Information on some uses of carbon dioxide
http://www.uigi.com/carbondioxide.html
Facts on carbon dioxide – includes statistics
http://www.blurtit.com/q137497.html
Simplified, basic uses of carbon dioxide
http://www.lenntech.com/carbon-dioxide.htm
Environmental issues with carbon dioxide

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