Ammonia Volatilization from Urea

Report
Ammonia volatilization from
urea
David E. Kissel
University of Georgia
Overview
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Evolution of Urea consumption
Definitions
Urea Dissolution and Diffusion
Urea Hydrolysis
Ammonia Volatilization
Research Results
Summary
USA Evolution of N Fertilizers
Consumption
21%
Urea
Ammonium nitrate
1973 / 74
2004 / 05
Nitrogen solutions
Anhydrous ammonia
Total compound N
0
1
2
3
4
5
Millions of tonnes
www.fertilizer.org
Overview
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Evolution of Urea consumption
Definitions
Urea Dissolution and Diffusion
Urea Hydrolysis
Ammonia Volatilization
Research Results
Summary
Definitions
• Dissolution: urea absorbs water
and converts from solid to liquid
• Hydrolysis: urea converts to
ammonium (NH4+)
• Diffusion: movement due to motion
of molecules
– Urea has no charge, diffuses easily
– NH4+ has charge, diffuses slowly
Overview
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Evolution of Urea consumption
Definitions
Urea Dissolution and Diffusion
Urea Hydrolysis
Ammonia Volatilization
Research Results
Summary
Urea Dissolution
• Urea has to be dissolved before it
can be hydrolyzed
Urea Dissolution
• Urea has to be dissolved before it
can be hydrolyzed
• Urea can absorb water from the
atmosphere and from the soil/crop
residue
Urea Dissolution
• Urea has to be dissolved before it
can be hydrolyzed
• Urea can absorb water from the
atmosphere and from the soil/crop
residue
• Absorption of water from the
atmosphere depends on relative
humidity (RH)
Urea Dissolution
• Urea has to be dissolved before it
can be hydrolyzed
• Urea can absorb water from the
atmosphere and from the soil/crop
residue
• Absorption of water from the
atmosphere depends on relative
humidity (RH)
• Critical relative humidity (CRH) is
the RH at which urea dissolves
90
16
CRH
85
14
80
12
75
10
70
8
65
6
S o lu b ility
60
4
20
40
60
80
100
o
A ir T e m p e ra tu re ( F )
120
U re a S o lu b ility (lb /g a llo n o f w a te r)
C ritica l R e la tive H u m id ity fo r U re a (% )
Effect of Temperature on CRH
and Water Solubility of Urea
Urea dissolution
and diffusion
RH > CRH (80%)
www.agrium.com
Crop residue
Urea
Urea
Dry Soil
Urea
Urea dissolution
and diffusion
www.agrium.com
Crop residue
Urea
1/2 inch
Urea
Urea
Urea
Wet Soil
Urea
Urea
Crop residue
Urea
2 inches
Urea
Urea
Urea
Urea
Urea
Urea Diffusion into Soil
Urea
Diffusion
Depth
Urea
Urea
Urea
Urea
Urea
• Determined by soil moisture
Urea Diffusion into Soil (after 10 days)
U re a C o n ce n tra tio n in S o il (p p m )
0
100
200
300
400
0
W e tte r
S o il D e p th (m m )
10
20
30
40
50
D rie r
500
600
700
Overview
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Evolution of Urea consumption
Definitions
Urea Dissolution and Diffusion
Urea Hydrolysis
Ammonia Volatilization
Research Results
Summary
Urea Hydrolysis
Urea
+2
H+
Urease enzyme
2
NH4+
• Urease is derived from crop residues
and soil microorganisms
Urease inhibitor
Crop residue
Urea
Urea
Urea
Urea
Urea
Urea
Overview
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Evolution of Urea consumption
Definitions
Urea Dissolution and Diffusion
Urea Hydrolysis
Ammonia Volatilization
Research Results
Summary
NH3 Volatilization Process
Atmosphere
NH3
NH3
Hydrolysis
NH3
NH3
NH3
NH3
Urea +
H+
NH4
+
Soil solution
NH3
NH3
Soil air
NH3 (gas)
Clay
OM
NH4+
NH4+
NH4+
NH4+ (aq)
NH3 (aq)+ H+
Equilibrium
N H 3 (a s % o f T o ta l A m m o n ia c a l N )
Effect of soil pH on NH3 as % of Total N
30
o
68 F
25
20
15
10
5
0
5
6
7
S o il p H
8
9
NH3 Volatilization Process
Atmosphere
NH3
NH3
Hydrolysis
NH3
NH3
NH3
NH3
Urea +
H+
NH4
+
Soil solution
NH3
NH3
Soil air
NH3 (gas)
Clay
OM
NH4+
NH4+
NH4+
NH4+ (aq)
NH3 (aq)+ H+
Equilibrium
L o w B u ffe rin g C a p a city
-1
N H 3 L o s s (k g N h a )
12
•Increase in soil pH
depends on soil H+
buffering capacity
8
4
H ig h B u ffe rin g C a p a city
0
L o w B u ffe rin g C a p a city
•Higher clay and OM
contents lead to higher
soil H+ buffering
capacity
S o il p H
9
8
H ig h B u ffe rin g C a p a city
7
F e rg u so n e t a l. (1 9 8 4 )
6
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
D a y s S in c e U re a A p p lic a tio n
Atmosphere
Urea hydrolyzes on the soil surface
Urea Urea Urea
Urea
NHNH +
NH33
NH33
+ NH +
NH
4
4
4
+
NH
+
+ 4
+
NH
+
NH
NH
4
4 NH
4
NH 4
NH
H+ H
+
3
3
NH33
NH3
NH3
3
H+
H+
½ inch
H+
H+
H+
+
HCEC
pH
6
7
8
9
Urea hydrolyzes below the soil surface
Urea Urea Urea
Urea
Urea Urea Urea
Urea
NH +
+ NH +
NH
4
4
4
+
NH
+
+ 4
+
NH
+
NH
NH
4
4 NH4
4
H+ H
+
H+
H+
NH3
2 inches
H+
H+
H+
H+
CEC
pH
6
7
Effect of Temperature on NH3 Volatilization
Temperature
NH3
NH3
NH3
NH3
NH3
NH3
Soil
NH3
NH3
½ inch
Urea
NH4+
NH3
+
H+
Effect of Temperature on Urea Hydrolysis
R e la tive U re a se A ctivity
6
5
4
3
2
1
G o u ld e t a l. (1 9 7 3 )
0
30
40
50
60
70
80
o
T e m p e ra tu re ( F )
90
100
110
Effect of Temperature on NH3 Volatilization
Temperature
NH3
NH3
NH3
NH3
NH3
NH3
Soil
NH3
NH3
½ inch
Urea
NH4+
NH3
+
H+
N H 3 (a s % o f T o ta l A m m o n ia ca l N )
Effect of Temperature on % of NH3
35
30
pH = 8.5
25
20
15
10
5
0
30
40
50
60
70
80
o
T e m p e ra tu re ( F )
90
100
110
Effect of Temperature on NH3 Volatilization
Temperature
NH3
NH3
NH3
NH3
NH3
NH3
Soil
NH3
NH3
½ inch
Urea
NH4+
NH3
+
H+
R e la tive D rivin g F o rce fo r C o n ve rsio n
o f A q u e o u s N H 3 to G a se o u s N H 3
Effect of Temperature on Conversion of
Aqueous NH3 to Gaseous NH3
5
4
3
2
1
30
40
50
60
70
80
o
T e m p e ra tu re ( F )
90
100
110
Effect of Temperature on NH3 Volatilization
Temperature
NH3
NH3
NH3
NH3
NH3
NH3
Soil
NH3
NH3
½ inch
Urea
NH4+
NH3
+
H+
Effect of Wind Speed on NH3 Volatilization
Atmosphere
NH
NH33
NH
NH33
NH3
NH
NH33
NH3
Wind speed
NH33
NH3
NH3
NH
NH33
NH
NH33
NH3
NH
NH33
NH3
NH33
Soil
NH3
NH3
½ inch
Urea
NH4+
NH3
+
H+
20
UAN
UREA
Nitamin
Replication I
15
51mm
5
0
20
5
UAN Replication
UREA
Nitamin
15
10 51mm
3
2
0 0 :0 0 :0 0
UAN
UREA
Nitamin
Replication III
15
51mm
5
0 0
Low
0
0
10
4
1
5
20
H ig h
II
W in d S p e e d (m s -1 )
Ammonia Loss (% of Applied N)
10
20 40 60 80 100 120
Days After Application
0 8 :0 0 :0 0
1 6 :0 0 :0 0
T im e
0 0 :0 0 :0 0
Optimum Conditions for
Volatilization
•
•
•
•
•
Small diffusion depth into soil
RH > CRH
High temperature
High wind speed
Low pH buffering capacity
Overview
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Evolution of Urea consumption
Definitions
Urea Dissolution and Diffusion
Urea Hydrolysis
Ammonia Volatilization
Research Results
Summary
Nitamin®
UAN
Urea
50
40
30
20
10
Rainfall
50
Rainfall (mm)
Temp = 47oF
0.4
Soil water content
40
0.3
30
0.2
20
0.1
10
0
20
40
60
80
100
Days after application
120
Soil water content (g g-1)
NH3 loss (% of applied N)
Urea Applied to Pasture - Fall 2004
Nitamin®
UAN
Urea
50
40
Temp = 63oF
30
20
10
Rainfall
Rainfall (mm)
50
Soil water content
0.4
40
0.3
30
0.2
20
0.1
10
0
20
40
60
Days after application
Soil water content (g g-1)
NH3 loss (% of applied N)
Urea Applied to Pasture – Spring 2005
Atmosphere
Urea
Urea
NH +
4
Urea
Urea4+
NH
Urea
+
Urea
NH
4
NH3
Clay
OM
NH4+
(aq)
NH3
Equilibrium
(aq)
+
H+
Nitamin®
UAN
Urea
50
40
Temp = 62oF
30
20
10
Rainfall
Rainfall (mm)
50
Soil water content
0.4
40
0.3
30
0.2
20
0.1
10
0
20
40
60
Days after application
Soil water content (g g-1)
NH3 loss (% of applied N)
Urea Applied to Pasture - Fall 2005
Time of RH > CRH (h)
Time of RH above CRH in the first 30 d
25
20
15
10
5
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Days after application
63days
%
Total: RH > CRH = 19
Atmosphere
RH > CRH (80%)
NH3
NH3
NH3
NH3
NH3
NH3
NH3
NH3
NH3
NH3
NH3
Urea
+
NH
NH3
NH3
NH3
NH3
NH3
+
NH
Urea
+
4
NH + Urea
NH
4NH +
4
NH
4 4 NH +
4
4
Fescue thatch
+
Soil water content (0.07 g g-1)
Permanent wilting point (0.04 g g-1)
Nitamin®
UAN
Urea
50
40
Temp = 69oF
30
20
10
Rainfall
Rainfall (mm)
50
Soil water content
0.4
40
0.3
30
0.2
20
0.1
10
0
20
40
60
Days after application
80
Soil water content (g g-1)
NH3 loss (% of applied N)
Urea Applied to Pasture – Spring 2006
Atmosphere
Urea
+
NH4Urea
Urea
Urea
NH4+
Urea
UreaNH4+
NH3
NH3
NH3
NH3
NH3
NH3
NH4
NH3
+
(aq) content
Soil water
CEC
NH3
NH3+
H
-1
(aq)
(0.15 g g )
Equilibrium
Field capacity (0.18 g g-1)
+
Summary of Pasture Results
Ammonia volatilization losses under field conditions
Fall 2004
Fertilizer
Spring 2005
Fall 2005
Spring 2006
--------------- Ammonia loss (% of applied N) -----------------
Urea
19 a*
12 a
46 a
24 a
UAN
6b
13 a
33 b
18 a
Nitamin®
6b
14 a
34 b
18 a
•Within a column, values followed by the same letter are not significantly different according to
Fisher’s LSD at p=0.05
Summary for Pastures/No-Till
Dry Soil, Dry Residue, RH < CRH: OK
Dry Soil, Dry Residue, RH > CRH: not OK
Wet Soil, Wet Residue: not OK
• Apply on dry soil, dry residue, expected low RH, and
hope for 1 inch of rain whenever it rains.
• Apply on wet soil if 1 inch rain/irrigation is expected.
Summary for Clean-Till Crops
Dry Soil: OK
Wet Soil: not OK
• Apply on dry soil and hope for 1 inch of rain whenever
it rains.
• Apply on wet soil if 1 inch of rain/irrigation is expected.
Summary for Pastures/Crops
Knifed or disked in
Dribbled
Broadcast
• Knifed of disked in better than Dribbled
• Dribbled better than Broadcast
Urea Applied to Pine Plantations
NH3 Loss (% of N Applied)
35
Mar
3 - Apr
2002 12
March
1412,
– April
30
(59oF)
25
20
11 mm
4 mm
15
0 mm
10
5
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
Rain Days After Urea Application
30
35
NH3 Loss (% of Applied N)
Urea Applied to Pine Plantations
May 2 - May 31, 2002
60
40 mm
40
0 mm
20 mm
20
Rain
66oF
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Days After Application
35
Cumulative NH3 Loss (% of Applied N)
Laboratory Results (77oF, 90% RH)
20
20 mm before urea
20 mm right after urea
20 mm 1 day after urea
20 mm 3 days after urea
15
10
5
5 mm rain added
to all treatments
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
Days After Urea Application
30
Pine needle photo
Urea
www.microscopyu.com
NH4
NH4+
+
CEC
CEC
Organic Layer
Pine needle photo
NH3
NH3
NH3
NH3
NH3
NH3
NHUrea
3
NH3
Urea
NH4
NH4
+NH4+
+
CEC
NH4
www.microscopyu.com
+
NH4+
Organic Layer
CEC
Summary for Pine Plantations
Dry Forest Floor, RH < CRH: OK
Dry Forest Floor, RH > CRH: not OK
Wet Forest Floor: not OK
• Apply on dry forest floor, with expected low RH,
and hope for 1 inch of rain whenever it rains.
• Apply on wet forest floor if 1 inch rain is expected.
Questions?

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