Argument - ELORA by National

Writing an Argumentative Paper
What is an Argument
• An argument involves the process of
establishing a claim and then proving it with
the use of logical reasoning, examples, and
What is Logical Reasoning
Drawing conclusions based on a given set of
Example: Mary and Dave are currently
married to each other and have a marriage
license, therefor Mary must be
Dave’s wife
Building a Convincing Argument
• Research the topic…become and expert on both
the Pros and Cons of the argument
• This demonstrates your credibility as a writer—
that you have researched multiple sides of the
argument and have come to an informed decision
• It shows you have considered other points of
view - that other points of view are valid and
reasonable but not necessarily the best way to
address the issue
Building a Convincing Argument Cont.
• Consider your audience when you offer a counterargument
• Conceding to some of your opposition’s concerns can
demonstrate respect for their opinions
• Remain tactful yet firm. Using rude or deprecating
language can cause your audience to reject your
position without carefully considering your claims
• Organize your argument and research
Why is Organization Important in an
• Guides an audience through your reasoning
• Offers a clear explanation of each argued
• Demonstrates the credibility of the writer
The Organization
• Argumentative Papers have PROs and CONs.
• Decide which of the following patterns will be
the most suitable for your topic
Pattern # 1
Thesis Statement
PRO idea 1
PRO idea 2
CON(s) + Refutation(s)
Pattern # 2
Thesis Statement
CON(s) + Refutation(s)
PRO idea 1
PRO idea 2
Pattern #3:
CON idea 1---> Ref.
CON idea 2---> Ref.
CON idea 3--->Ref.
Parts of Paper
• Information, (other than parts 1, 6, and 7), may be
ordered in several ways depending upon the topic
and purpose of your argument:
– Part 1: Introduction to issue (includes Thesis
Statement and attention getter)
– Part 2: History of issue, any past attempts at
solutions (cite juried/refereed sources)
Parts of Paper cont.
• Part 3: Extent of the issue and who is affected (cite
juried/refereed sources)
• Part 4: repercussions if issues not resolved, use
(juried/refereed sources)
• Part 5: prior paragraphs should have provided
sound reasoning, now the argument along with
the facts need to be pulled together (if
objections, make concessions if necessary)
Parts of Paper cont.
• Part 6: conclusion (a restating of thesis and
summary of the main ideas)
• Part 7: references
Intro &
• Often too understated
• Introduces issues of discussion to the audience
• Generates reader interest in the argument
• Create a provocative image to grab the audience’s attention
or pose questions
• Do NOT choose a title that is too general, lacks character,
does not interest you, or one that is not arguable
Imagine you just wrote a paper offering solutions to the
problem of road rage. Which do you consider to be the
best title?
Road Rage
Can’t Drive 55
Road Rage: Curing Our Highway Epidemic
Readers first impression of paper
Sets stage for rest of paper
Includes an Attention getter
Includes the Thesis statement
General introduction of issues
Attention Getter
• Impresses reader
• Captures their imagination
• Leads to a desire to read more
• Suggestions: ask a question about the topic, entice the
reader with a generalized statement related to the
topic such as (hair regrowth products can cause
insecurity in some men) or compare and contrast a
couple of main points
Thesis Statement
sentences in your paper
• Expresses your interpretation of the topic and
answers the question: “what am I trying to
• Not a factual statement, but a claim that has
to be proven throughout the paper
Thesis Practice: Fact versus Claim
Which thesis statement is most effective for an argument
about the need for V-chips in television sets?
• Parents, often too busy to watch television with their
families, can monitor their children’s viewing habits
with the aid of the V-chip.
• This paper will describe a V-chip and examine the uses
of the V-chip in American-made television sets.
• To help parents monitor their children’s viewing
habits, the V-chip should be required feature for
television sets sold in the U.S. Correct
General Introduction of Issues
• Sets the tone of the paper
• Attracts the reader’s attention
• Introduces research, theme, and argument
Body of Paper
• Contains reliable resources and unquestionable
evidence with support for both sides
• Develop a solid base upon which to build an
argument and present your case
• Persuasive presentation using persuasive tone
balanced with boldness and confidence, (the best
way to write persuasively is to write about a
topic that you are very familiar with, have an
interest in, and has both PROs and CONs)
Body of Paper Cont.
• Persuasive and powerful language, (think
about the language used in court situations on
TV, and what the lawyers say to win the case)
• Strong evidence usually proves their case
• Lack of evidence usually gets the case thrown
• Your conclusion should reemphasize the main
points made in your paper
• You may choose to reiterate a call to action or
speculate on the future of your topic, when
• Avoid raising new claims in your conclusion
• Remember your goal is to win the argument or sway
readers to your point of view
• To win the argument you will need to be a expert on
the topic
• To become an expert you will need to do a lot of
• Don’t waste your time researching un-reliable sources
Things to Avoid
• Feelings, emotional arguments (… it makes
one feel much better)
• Irrelevant examples (wandering off the topic)
(… he would then be able to take his girlfriend
to expensive restaurants)
• Oversimplification (… only then would he
understand what it means to be an adult)
Things to Avoid Cont.
• Hasty generalizations (... it is a widely known
fact that all adolescents look forward to
earning money)
• Unreliable, even false outside sources (…
according to, 80% of
working men wish they quit school when they
were at university and started working at an
earlier age)
Things to Avoid Cont.
• Arguments that you can’t win
• Using First Person Instead of saying “I believe
we should support the removal of federal
funding in school lunch programs,” use
“removing federal funding from our school
lunch programs will allow local school systems
greater control over what foods are offered to
Research used in the Paper
• On of the MOST important parts of an argumentative
paper is that it has a quantity of research, from
juried/refereed sites, to substantiate the paper’s main
• Researched material can aid you in proving the claims
of your argument and disproving oppositional claims
• Be sure to use your research to support the claims
made in your topic sentences--make your research
work to prove your argument

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