Pegasus group - Masonry First

Report
CARBON FUTURES
QUANTIFYING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT WITHIN
THE NPPF
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Resolution 24/187 of the United Nations General Assembly,
defined sustainable Development as “development that
meets the needs of the present without compromising
the ability of future generations to meet their own
needs”
MARKET FAILURE
Quantifying sustainable development through social
cost/benefit analysis within the neoclassical
economic model is a market failure. The national
approach does not flow through to the local
requirements within a community:
• Current path to wealth creation is undesirable for marginal
decisions.
• Thresholds and depletion of resource at a faster rate than a
substitute can be developed isn’t accounted for.
• Use of Net Present Value (NPV) doesn’t compensate between
generations or irreversible impacts.
SOURCE: THE ECONOMICS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, DEFRA 2010.
CARBON FUTURES
Can Sustainable Development be quantified within a
CO2 reduction framework as:
• Presumption in Favour of Sustainable Development as a golden
tread running through plan making and decision taking in the NPPF.
• Value of CO2 emissions provides an inclusive community benefit for
current and future generations.
EU POLICY FRAMEWORK
EU: 2020 Strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive
growth (2011) – replaces Lisbon Treaty encapsulates:
• Improving capacity and quality of infrastructure network.
• Efficient and robust planning.
• Public/private financing.
Built on the bedrock:
• Renewable Energy Directive (2009)
• Energy Performance Buildings Directive (2002 & 2010)
• Construction Products Regulations (2011)
• Water Framework Directive (2000)
• Revised Waste Framework Directive (2008)
• Biodiversity Framework (2012)
UK PLANNING POLICY
NPPF provides a “Presumption in Favour of
Sustainable Development”:
• Economic Role – development at the right time and in the right
place
• Social Role – good quality environment for current and future
generations
• Environmental role – protecting the environment and moving to a
low carbon economy.
National Legislation provides checks and balances:
• Planning and compulsory Purchase Act (2004)
• Climate Change Act (2008)
• Floods and Water Management Act (2010)
• Localism Act (2011)
• Building Regulations (2010)
SUSTAINABLE ECONOMICS
How does Sustainable Development perform at the
centre of the Economy?
Social Sustainability – debate about how to preserve the
potential for future generations to enjoy well-being and
standards of today.
Environmental Sustainability – externality and state of
depletion of environmental assets or compensating
mechanisms which off-set the impact.
Economic Sustainability – economic and social wellbeing are linked but assessment of environmental and
social capital are often opaque.
ECONOMIC MODELS
Today’s Free Market based “every man for himself”
model has failed to prevent Climate Change (Stern
Review 2006) as it doesn’t link relationships:
• Growing world economy with greenhouse gas emissions;
• Greenhouse gas emissions with increases in temperature;
• Increases in temperature with climate change;
• Climate change with environmental impacts;
• Environmental impacts with socio-economic responses.
• Current models assume that low-carbon is
detrimental to growth and affordability.
CO2 REDUCTION FRAMEWORK
Value CO2 emissions reductions through sustainable
development from:
savings beyond Building Regulations (2010) for
energy and water; and
savings by green infrastructure retained and
improved by the development,
LOW & ZERO CARBON HOMES
• UK approach for nearly Zero Energy Buildings by 2020
split 65% through fabric first and on-site features and 35%
allowable solutions in the community.
• Research identified additional CO2 reductions beyond
Building Regulations compliance that benefit the
community include:
• Embodied CO2 can be off-set at 11 years (medium weight
house) and 21-25 years for heavy weight house over 100
years;
• Potable water savings beyond Part G Building Regulations.
• Adaptability through deconstruction and reuse reduces CO2
emissions during life of the dwellings.
GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE
• NPPF states development “must fully consider their
obligations to protect and enhance the natural
environment”. Green Infrastructure “forms a network
which provides additional complementary wildlife
habitat, landscape quality and public access and which
buffers key habitats from adverse impacts of
developed areas and their associated activities”
• Benefits include:
• Climate regulation – impacting on the heat island effect.
• Regulates surface water run-off – SUD’s
• Regulation of air pollution – absorption of CO2, ozone,
particulates and improved air quality.
• Mitigation and adaptation to climate change – social value of
carbon to carbon sequestered by forests and wetlands.
CARBON AUDIT VALUES
• Quantifying Sustainable Development through CO2
•
•
•
•
reduction framework contributes to the future
generations:
CO2 savings beyond Part L (SAP model KgCO2/m2/yr)
CO2 savings beyond Part G (350l/d at 2.2Kg/CO2/d)
CO2 savings by embodied off-set (7% of operational after 25 yrs).
CO2 savings by green infrastructure - Woodland (6tCO2/Ha/yr),
Natural open space (18.3tCO2/Ha/yr), Grassland (11.62tCO2/Ha/yr),
Wetland/swales & allotments (8.07tCO2/Ha/yr)
CARBON AUDIT PROJECTS
• SUE – Crawley NES – TW & Persimmon – (1900 dwellings)
whole site audit. Additional savings 32% beyond Part L
• SUE – Commonhead – Persimmon – (890 dwellings) whole
site audit. Additional savings 20% beyond Part L.
• Brownfield - Farington – TW – (234 dwellings) Phase 1
audit. Additional savings 15% beyond Part L.
• Greenfield – Langely Park – TW – (600 dwellings). Whole
site audit. Additional savings 35% beyond part L & Part G.
PLANNING GAINS
• The Carbon Audit reduction framework provides
significant benefits to both developer and LPA:
• Measure for both CO2 reductions and sustainable
development to prevent onerous conditions and removes
application of CSH levels.
• Provides significant construction costs savings (typically £3k to
£6k/dwelling).
• Future proofing for changes to Building Regulations Part L as
demonstrates total CO2 reductions (allowable solutions).
• Strengthens the Fabric First approach and has been used to
challenged and removed conditions that require the
application of renewable technologies.
FURTHER WORK
• Increase the audit values to account for:
• Embodied CO2 savings post 25 years over the dwelling
life. (120 years).
• Detailed valuation of verges, paths and landscape
frontage to dwellings.
• Inclusion of sequestered CO2 within gardens pre-
occupation.
QUESTIONS?
Dr Alana O'Neill MEI
• Sustainability Director
M: 07557 970324
Pegasus Group
Pegasus House | Querns Business Centre | Whitworth
Road | Cirencester | GL7 1RT
T 01285 641717 | F 01285 642348 | DDI 01285 888024 |
E [email protected]

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