Chapter 22 - Richard (Rick) Watson

Report
Data Administration
Bad administration, to be sure, can
destroy good policy; but good
administration can never save bad policy
Adlai Stevenson, 1952
Data administration
Data are the lifeblood of organizations
Data need to be managed
Data administration is concerned with
the management of organizational
memories
2
Data are generated
by stakeholders
Employees
Customers
Shareholders
Investors
Suppliers
Government
3
Data management problems
Redundancy
Inconsistent representations
Multiple definitions of data items
Essential data missing
Inaccurate or incomplete data
Uncaptured data
Data that cannot be located
4
Goals of data management
Enable clients and customers to access
the data they need in the most suitable
format
Maintain data integrity
5
Chief Data Officer (CDO)
A new C-level position
Responsible for the strategic
management of data systems and
ensuring that the organization fully
seizes data-driven opportunities
In 2003, Capital One was perhaps to
first firm to appoint a CDO
6
CDO role dimensions
Collaboration direction
Inward or outward
Data management focus
Traditional transaction or big data
Value orientation
Service or strategy
7
Three dimensions of the CDO
Strategy
Traditional
data
Outward
Inward
Big
data
Service
8
Inward collaboration
Initiatives might include developing
data quality assessment methods,
establishing data products standards,
creating procedures for managing
metadata, and establishing data
governance
The goal is to ensure consistent data
delivery and quality inside the
organization
9
Outward collaboration
An outwardly-focused CDO will strive to
cooperate with an organization’s external
stakeholders
One CDO led a program for “global unique
product identification” to improve collaboration
with external global partners
Another might pay attention to improving
the quality of data supplied to external
partners
10
Traditional data management
Traditional data are still the foundation of many
organization’s operations
There remains in many firms a need for a CDO
with a transactional data orientation
Traditional data are typically managed with a
relational databases
11
Big data management
Big data promises opportunities for
improving operations or developing
new business strategies based on
analyses and insights not available from
traditional data
A CDO attending to big data can provide
leadership in helping a business gain
deeper knowledge of its key
stakeholders
12
Service orientation
If the top management team is mainly
concerned with oversight and
accountability, then the CDO should pay
attention to improving existing datarelated processes
13
Strategy orientation
If the senior team actively seeks new
data-driven strategic value, then the
CDO needs to be similarly aligned and
might look at how to exploit digit data
streams
One strategy-directed CDO, led an
initiative to identify new information
products for advancing the firm’s
position in the financial industry
14
CDO archetypes
Inward
Coordinator
Reporter
Architect
Ambassador
Analyst
Marketer
Developer
Experimenter
Outward
Traditional
data
Big data
Strategy
Service
CDO archetypes
Archetype
Definition
Coordinator
Fosters internal collaboration using transactional data to support business
services
Reporter
Provides high quality enterprise data delivery services for external
reporting
Architect
Designs databases and internal business processes to create new
opportunities for the organization
Ambassador
Develops internal data policies to support business strategy and external
collaboration using traditional data sources
Analyst
Improves internal business performance by exploiting big data to provide
new services
Marketer
Develops relationships with external data partners and stakeholders to
improve externally provided data services using big data
Developer
Navigates and negotiates with internal enterprise divisions in order to
create new services by exploiting big data
Engages with external parties, such as suppliers and industry peers, to
Experimenter explore new, unidentified markets and products based on insights derived
from big data
Management of the
database environment
17
Components of the
database environment
Databases
User interface
Data dictionary
External databases
18
Data administration
System
Environment wide
management issues
Planning
Data standards and
policy
Data integrity
Resolving data conflicts
Managing the DBMS
Data dictionary
Benchmarking
Project
Defining user
requirements
Data modeling
Training and consulting
Monitoring integrity and
usage
Change management
19
Data administration vs.
database administration
Not an appropriate distinction
System
Data administration
Project
Database administration
Think in terms of system and project rather
than data and database
Data administration can refer to both system
and project level functions
20
Data administration
functions and roles
A function is a set of activities to be performed
Individuals are assigned roles to perform
certain activities
Data administration functions may be
performed by a:
Data administrator
Data administration staff
Database development
Database consultant
Database analyst
21
Data steward
Responsible for managing all corporate
data for a critical business entity or
product
Cuts across functional boundaries
Aligns data management with
organizational goals
22
Database use levels
Personal
Workgroup
Organizational
More users means greater complexity
23
Personal databases
Notebook computers
Personal digital assistants (PDAs)
Personal information managers (PIMs)
Cell phones
Music players (iPod)
Information appliances
24
Workgroup and
organizational databases
Shared by many people
Greater complexity
Require more planning and coordination than personal databases
25
System level data
administration
Planning
Development of data standards and policies
Data integrity
Data conflict resolution
Managing the DBMS
Establishing and maintaining the Data Dictionary
Selection of hardware and software
Benchmarking
Managing external databases
Internal marketing
26
Selection of hardware
and software
How many users will simultaneously access the
database?
Will the database need to be geographically distributed?
What is the maximum size of the database?
How many transactions per second can the DBMS
handle?
What kind of support for on-line transaction processing
is available?
What are the initial and ongoing costs of using the
product?
What is the extent of training required, will it be
provided, and what are the associated costs?
27
Project level data
administration functions
Meeting the needs of individual
applications and users
Support and development of a specific
database system
28
Systems Development Life
Cycle
Application Development Life
Cycle (ADLC)
Database Development Life
Cycle (DDLC)
Project planning
Project planning
Requirements definition
Requirements definition
Application design
Database design
Application construction
Application testing
Database testing
Application implementation
Database implementation
Operations
Database usage
Maintenance
Database evolution
29
Strategies for system
development
Database and applications developed
independently
Applications developed for existing
databases
Database and application development
proceed simultaneously
30
Development roles
Database Development
Phase
Database Developer
Data Administrator
User
Project planning
Does
Consults
Provides information
Requirements
definition
Does
Consults
Provides requirements
Database design
Does
Consults
Validates data models
Data integrity
Database testing
System and user
testing
Consults
Does user testing
Database
implementation
System related
activities
Consults
Database usage
Consults
Data integrity
monitoring
Uses
Database evolution
Does
Change control
Provides additional
requirements
Data integrity
Does user activities
Data integrity
31
Database
development
cycle
Data administration
interfaces
33
Data administration
interfaces
Management
Sets the agenda and goals
Users
Seek satisfaction of goals
Development
Co-operation
Computer operations
Establishing and monitoring procedures for
operating databases
34
Data administration tools
Database development
phase
Data Dictionary (DD)
Database Management
System (DBMS)
Performance monitoring
Case tools
1. Project planning
Document
Data map
Design aid
Estimation tools
2. Requirements
definition
Document Design aid
Document
Design aid
3. Database design
Document
Design aid
Data map
Schema generator
Document
Design aid
Data map
4.Database testing
Data map
Design aid
Schema generator
Define, create, test, data
integrity
Impact analysis
5.Database
implementation
Document
Change control
Data integrity
Implement
Design
Monitor
Tune
6. Database use
Document
Data map
Schema generator
Change control
Provide tools for retrieval
and update
Enforce integrity controls
and procedures
Monitor
Tune
7. Database evolution
Document
Data map
Change control
Redefine
Impact analysis
Test data
generator
Design aid
35
Use of the data dictionary
Documentation support
Data maps
Design aid
Schema generation
Change control
36
Data integration
Lack of data integration is a common problem
Examples
Different identifiers for the same instance of an
entity
The same data stored in multiple systems
Related data stored in different databases
Different methods of calculation for the same
business indicator in different systems
37
Data integration
Red division
Blue division
partnumber
(code for green widget)
27
27
customerid
(code for UPS)
53
53
Definition of salesdate
The date the
The date the
customer signs customer signs
the order
the order
38
Lack of data integration
Red division
Blue division
partnumber
(code for green widget)
27
10056
customerid
(code for UPS)
53
613
The date the
customer signs
the order
The date the
customer
receives the
order
Definition of salesdate
39
Goals of data integration
A standard meaning and format for all
data elements
A standard format for each and every
data element
A standard coding system
A standard measurement system
A single corporate data model for each
major business entity
40
Data integration strategies
Environmental High
turbulence
Low
Moderate
Moderate
High
Low
Low
High
Unit interdependence
41
Organizing the data
administration function
Creation of the function
Selecting staff and assigning roles
Locating the function
42
Conclusion
Data administration is
Critical to the success of most
organizations
Necessary for data-driven decision making
Growing in complexity
Increasingly requires the appointment
of a CDO to ensure appropriate strategic
attention
43

similar documents