Statistical information and employment definitions

Pillar two
Non mobile (blue collar) workers, logistics functions
Presentation of the statistical information and
employment definitions
Final conference, Brussels,
3 & 4 April, 2012
Goals of the study
 Collection of job titles, descriptions and nomenclatures related to blue collar
logistics workers in the freight road transport sector
 Statistical data and statistical nomenclatures related to blue collar logistics
workers in the freight road transport sector
 Training provision related to the considered jobs
 Best practices identified in companies, training centres
Road freight transport companies
Training centres
Descriptions of jobs
Placement agencies, transport companies,
training bodies, social partners
Statistical data
Statistical institutes, observatories, labour
Ministries, labour agencies
Reports, sector studies etc.
Definitions of logistics
Statistical data
The training offer and
Identification of the targeted jobs according to the
Novalog nomenclature
Group 4
The distinguishing feature of this group is that
the jobs involve operational tasks carried out
within a given amount of time, by monitoring
using IT systems for constant control of the
operations carried out, and by informing
superiors of incidents and problems
Warehouse Operations (blue
Warehouse Operator
Forklift Driver
Order Picker
Freight transport by road
Countries covered
Czech Republic
Difficulties in data collection
A lack of willingness from the companies to involve in
the survey – no time to dedicate to surveys, no direct
benefits for the company…
Poland: 63 companies, UK – 15 companies contacted by
e-mail and recontacted by phone;
Involvement of local partners and associations
Result: impossible to convince companies in these
countries to participate to interviews
What statistical information available for
quantifying jobs performing logistics functions in
the sector of freight transport by road?
The ISCO – a common tool
classifications in Europe are
based on or harmonised
standard classification of
occupations (ISCO, by the
International Labour Office).
Targeted logistics jobs in the ISCO
Group 4. Clerical support workers
4131 Stock clerks
Stock clerks maintain records of goods produced and production materials received, weighed, issued,
dispatched or put into stock.
Subgroup 834 Mobile plant operators
Slight differences between the two versions 88 and 08 of ISCO:
ISCO 88 Lifting truck operators 8334
ISCO 08 Lifting truck operators 8344
Mobile plant operators drive, tend, operate and monitor special-purpose motorised, machinery or
equipment used for clearing or preparing land; digging, moving, and spreading earth, rock and similar
materials; and lifting or moving heavy objects.
8344 Lifting truck operators
Lifting-truck operators drive, operate and monitor lifting-truck or similar vehicle to transport, lift and
stack pallets with goods.
Examples of the occupations classified here:
- Forklift truck driver
Completed by the elementary occupations of group 9
Group 9: Elementary occupations
Elementary occupations involve the performance of simple and routine tasks which may require the
use of hand-held tools and considerable physical effort. Most occupations in this major group require
skills at the first ISCO skill level.
 Related to the transport and logistics sector:
933 Transport and storage labourers
Transport and storage labourers propel cycles and similar vehicles and drive animaldrawn vehicles to transport passengers or goods, drive animal-drawn machinery, handle freight and
baggage and stock shelves
The occupations in this minor group are declined as follows:
Hand and pedal vehicle drivers
Freight handlers
Shelf fillers
Relying on ISCO only includes some limits
1. Information is not always available by ISCO classification or not
2. The ISCO nomenclature is far from satisfactory for identifying logistics
jobs. Level 1 of the ISCO-08 classification is the most aggregated, and
therefore the least detailed. Logistics jobs targeted in the STARTS
project may be identified within level 4.
3. Information collected on the basis of ISCO often provides only data on
jobs at heavily aggregated levels of the nomenclature. As a
consequence, wide-ranging job families can be quantified, but it is
difficult to obtain updated data for logistics jobs.
National approaches, ISCO correspondence
Some countries have developed national (more detailed) classification of jobs, on the basis of which
statistics are available.
In France: the PCS nomenclature (list of professions and socio-professional categories) is at the centre of
the system for identifying jobs, combined with broader interests than the mere production of data on jobs.
PCS classification (Professions et catégories socioprofessionnelles) list is used by the national statistics
body in coding population censuses, and in the survey on job structure.
The need to analyse jobs and unemployment by job led to the
creation of a specific nomenclature of jobs (the FAP) constructed
on the basis of the PCS and the operational repertoire (Répertoire
Opérationnel des Métiers et des Emplois - ROME) used by the
national employment agency (Pôle Emploi) to codify jobs to help
jobseekers and employers make the right choices.
NAF – French Nomenclature of activities
NES – Synthesis economic nomenclature
FAP – Nomenclature of professional families
PCS - Professions and socio-professional categories
Level of
ROME – Operationnal Repertoire of Professions and Jobs
Source: OREF Île de France
National approaches, ISCO correspondence
Germany also has its specific national classification of occupations Klassifizierung der Berufe: KldB 2010.
Not based on ISCO, but a high comparable capacity of the last (2010) version.
Data on labour market - Federal Employment Agency (Bundesagentur für Arbeit). Specific methodological
approach, comparison of these statistical data with statistical employment data from other countries is
difficult respectively not possible.
Austria: statistical data on occupation - two different definitions:
1. according to international level comparable Labour-Force-Concept (ILO-definitions);
2. according to the national definitions set at the social security system (Hauptverband der
Österreichischen Sozialversicherungsträger), i.e. reported data on occupations, and at the Austrian
Public Employment Office (Arbeitsmarktservice Österreich - AMS).
Nevertheless: statistical data on blue-collar worker working at the warehouse related to the road sector –
not recorded at the responsible institution for the social security system (Hauptverband der
österreichischen Sozialversicherungsträger)  neither available to other institutions.
Employment trends related to these occupations - provided by the Austrian Public Employment Office
(Arbeitsmarktservice Österreich - AMS) within the AMSQualifikationsbarometer.
Correspondence tables between the ISCO 08 and the national classifications have been elaborated, for a
better comparability
Logistics jobs definitions in the covered countries
Main actors involved in logistics jobs definitions:
Statistical and standardisation bodies
Public employment agencies and placement agencies are developing increasingly
comprehensive tools to help in pairing supply and demand and distribution of the
definitions via Internet sites. The agencies participate in the renewal of the way
logistics is considered in favour of more global approaches.
The social partners: particularly at the sector level, but also jointly with other players
(incl. training bodies). The social partners' contribution in defining logistics jobs is more
present in countries of Western Europe.
Training bodies, which use much broader categories in considering jobs in terms of
full-length training courses;
The road transport companies: usually rely on the definitions provided by the
employment agencies and standardisation bodies, with some minor adaptations to the
company’s specificities
A variable number of institutions and
heterogeneous aproaches in defining logistics jobs
In Western countries (Belgium, France, Italy, Germany…) a variety of
organizations are involved in the process of job definition and of matching the
needs of the labour market to the provision of education and training.
In countries with less developed collective bargaining (Romania, Lithuania,
Bulgaria) the main source for job definitions is the ISCO system (Statistical
institutes) and the data collected by the National Employment bodies: Labour
Ministry, Employment Agencies.
Previous occupational nomenclatures are harmonised with ISCO. Ex.: in
Romania, the CNFPA (National Council for Training of Adults) contributes to
the COR ( based on ISCO). Otherwise, job description is used for some
collective bargaining.
ISCO is the common classification for most of countries. France, Italy and
Belgium have the widest variety of sources for job descriptions.
Germany: a new classification in use since 2011, reflecting the changes within
the professional occupations during the past decades. High comparable
capacity has been generated to the International Standard Classification of
Occupations 2008 (ISCO-08).
Germany: development and structural design for
KldB 2010
KldB 2010
The level of
sniveau) –
the core
principle of
the design
Level 1: Activities of unskilled worker/helper and apprenticeship
(Helfer- und Anlerntätigkeiten) (simple routineous non-complex
activities. 1 year of vocational education);
Level 2: Subject oriented activities (fachlich ausgerichtete
Tätigkeiten) (2-3 years of vocational education)
Level 3: Complex activities of specialists (komplexe
Spezialistentätigkeiten) (more complex than level 2; based on
additional or periodic trainings or adequate professional
experiences and/or informal vocational formation);
Level 4: Highly complex activities (hoch komplexe Tätigkeiten)
(very high degree of complexity. Min. of 4 years of academic
education, adequate professional experiences);
Federal Statistics Office
Federal Employment Agency
The German example: a statistical classification including a wide
range of jobs related to the warehouse functions
According to KldB 2010 the following job titles are recorded for warehousing, postal delivery and goods
transshipments (Lagerwirtschaft, Post und Zustellung, Güterumschlag):
513 Warehousing, postal delivery and goods transshipments (Lagerwirtschaft, Post und Zustellung,
5131 Professions at warehousing
(Berufe in der Lagerwirtschaft)
51311 Unloader
51311 Helper for transport
51311 Loader
51311 Helper for production
(Produktionshelfer/in Verpackung)
51311 Packer
51311 Unskilled worker at the warehouse
51311 Helper at the warehouse
51312 Warehouse worker
51312 Skilled employee – warehouse logistics
(Fachkraft Lagerlogistik)
51312 Disponent/at warehouse
(Disponent/in Lager)
51312 Chief storekeeper
52531 forklift operator
Italy: an example of interaction for jobs definitions
Italy : Example of job description
For training purpose (orientaonline)
Storekeeper/ Warehouse operator (Magazziniere)
This figure has a role of technical and operational support and is present in all retailers
and in wholesale trade. He is responsible for managing of incoming goods through
handling and storage activities. In medium and large companies can also be found the
profiles of staff for goods and goods auxiliary. He can check goods inbounds and
outbounds and the accuracy of transport documents ("delivery note") and/or complete
them using IT tools. He can load and unload the different means of transport and store
goods in the warehouse, in general with mechanical means. He must, moreover,
periodically check the quality of goods stored.
In company:
The goods reception specialist accomplishes the following tasks:
• Receipt of goods: controls the matching between goods and goods description in the
bills of lading
• Inputing of goods within the company system and location in the warehouse
• Goods labelling
• Checking the location of goods in storage area (indicated by RF palmar device)
• Preparing the loading (evening), after picking
• Controls the composition of loads for deliveries
Jobs definitions at the sectoral level
Belgium: the “Fonds Social Transport et Logistique” (FSTL) is a security fund for companies
of the sector of road transport and logistics. The board is constituted with parity of
representation between employers and union organisations.
The main activities are :
- To manage some social benefits to the workers of the sector
- The continuous vocational training of workers
- The promotion and improvement of work condition and security in this sector.
The “Institut Transport routier & Logistique Belgique” (ITLB): is a non profit
association created by both authorities and private sector. The board is constituted with
parity of representation between the Ministry of Transport and Mobility and professional
organisations of road transport in Belgium (FEBETRA, SAV and UPTR).
France: National collective agreement of the road transport and transport auxiliary
activities (Convention Nationale des transports routiers et des activités auxiliaires du
transport) contributes to setting up and approval of definitions of specific jobs of the personnel
of companies providing logistics services.
Example: handler in logistics (manutentionnaire logistique), logistical agent (agent logistique)
Jobs definitions at the sectoral level
Netherlands: the Dutch organisation for the valuation of functions in road freight transport and mobile
cranes (FUWA wegvervoer) elaborates and publishes a handbook on transport and logistics functions and
types of jobs.
It describes the functions according to six aspects:
[a] knowledge and experience,
[b] self-dependence, risks, responsibilities and influence,
[c] social skills and communication skills,
[d] skills in handling equipment and tools and attentiveness,
[e] burdening circumstances.
And distinguishes four categories of functions:
[1] drivers,
[2] logistical functions,
[3] technical functions,
[4] planning / commercial / supporting / accounting functions.
The handbook contains an extended list of job descriptions. The group of job descriptions that describes
non mobile blue collar logistics jobs is “group 10” :
order picker (A), logistics operator (B), warehouse operator (C), reach truck driver (C), warehouse
foreman (D), inventory management operator (D), clerk (E), warehouse team leader (E),
The letters (A) - (G) refer to the scaling categories which are used to determine the salaries. (A) is the
lowest category and it requires the lowest level of schooling, diplomas and skills. (H) is the highest, but
it does not exist in the logistical group of functions.
Inputs from companies – jobs titles in use
Most common terms in the interviewed companies:
Order picker
Forklift driver, forklift operator
Foreman, shift leader
For smaller companies (flat structures), larger definitions which
designate multitask personnel:
• store worker,
• warehouse employee,
• terminal employee.
Inputs from companies - recruitment
The inputs coming from the companies are essential in order to
provide a relevant up to date nomenclature of job definitions related
to the logistics functions and to select the relevant commonly
interprofessional job definitions available.
The definitions of logistics jobs in the company are strongly
correlated with the size of the company. Bigger is the company,
more hierarchical is its structure and more clearly delimitated the
Main recruitment criteria:
previous experience;
physical condition;
age – 40-45 years maximum
Inputs from companies - competences
Most common competences valued by the interviewed companies:
• Knowledge of the national language – written and spoken;
• Good physical condition, stress resistant, ability to meet
• Basic knowledge of a foreign language;
• PC user skills;
• Ability to handle heavy loads correctly, good orientation in a
closed space;
• Awareness of safety rules in a warehouse;
• Autonomous, multi-task, responsiveness;
• Knowledge of the goods stored in the warehouse;
• Team player, communicative
• Knowledge of a foreign language – an advantage
Inputs from companies
Aspects of training underlined:
• Health and safety rules
• Gestures and postures for handling heavy loads and operating
equipment in a warehouse;
• Fire prevention;
• First aid
Recent changes and trends:
• An increasing automation of processes, which decreases the
number of human errors in the processes but requires more
technological skills;
• The growing importance and use of IT;
• Less paper support, an increasing use of mobile devices;
• Growing importance of foreign languages (English).
A complex reality with a broad variety of possible
combinations of activities
W a r eh o u s e
Specialised by tasks
Unskilled warehouse worker
Handler-forklift driver
Warehouse worker/operative
Forklift driver
Store worker
Storage and Terminal
Warehouseman-forklift driver
Order picker
Terminal employee
Terminal worker
+ supervision
Team leader
Area responsible
Platform agent (agent de quai)

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