Descriptive Studies

Report
Chapter 6
Research Design : An Overview
Donald R. Cooper & Pamela S. Schindler
授課教授: 洪新原 教授
組員:602530037 翁育群
602556023 李明易
601520038 游珉宜
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What Is Research Design?
• Blueprint
• Plan
• Guide
• Framework
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What Is Research Design?
Design in the Research Process
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What Tools Are Used in Designing
Research?
CPM Schedule of Research Design
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Classification of Designs
Category
Options
The degree to which the research question has
been crystallized
•
•
Exploratory study
Formal study
The method of data collection
•
•
Monitoring
Communication study
The power of the researcher to produce effects
in the variables under study
•
•
Experimental
Ex post facto
The purpose of the study
•
•
•
Reporting
Descriptive
Casual - Explanatory. Predictive
The time dimension
•
•
Cross-sectional
Longitudinal
The topical scope – breadth and depth – of the
study
• Case
• Statistical study
The research environment
• Field setting
• Laboratory research
• Simulation
The participants’ perceptions of research
activity
• Actual routine
• Modified routine
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Degree of Research Question
Crystallization
• Exploratory study
• Formal study
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Method of Data Collection
• Monitoring
• Communication study
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Researcher Control of Variables
• Experiment
• Ex post facto design
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The purpose of the Study
• Reporting study
• Descriptive study
• Causal-explanatory study
• Causal-predictive study
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The Time Dimension
• Cross-sectional studies
• Longitudinal studies
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The Topical Scope
• Statistical studies
• Case studies
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The Research Environment
• Field conditions
• Laboratory conditions
• Simulations
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Participants’ Perceptual Awareness
• 1.Participants perceive no deviations from
everyday routines
• 2.Participants perceive deviations, but as
unrelated to the researcher
• 3.Participants perceive deviations as
researcher-induced
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Exploratory Studies
Established range and
scope of possible
management
decisions
Established major
dimensions of
research task
Defined a set of
subsidiary questions
that can guide
research design
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Exploratory Studies
Develop hypotheses
about possible causes
of management
dilemma
Learn which
hypotheses can be
safely ignored
Conclude additional
research is not
needed or not
feasible
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Quality Technique
The
Amount
The How
Much
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The essential
character or
nature of
something
The what
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Quality Technique
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Commonly Used
Exploratory Techniques
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Secondary
data
analysis
Experience
surveys
Focus
groups
Two-stage
designs
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Experience Survey
• What is being done?
• What has been tried in the past with or
without success?
• How have things changed?
• Who is involved in the decisions?
• What problem areas can be seen?
• Whom can we count on to assist or participate
in the research?
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Focus Groups
•Group discussion
•6-10 participants
•Moderator-led
•90 minutes-2 hours
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Descriptive Studies
Who?
How
much?
When?
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What?
Where?
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Descriptive Studies
• In contrast to exploratory studies, more formalized
studies are typically structured with clearly stated
hypotheses or investigative questions. Formal studies
serve a variety of research objectives:
1. Descriptions of population characteristics
2. Estimates of frequency of characteristics
3. Discovery of associations among variables
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Descriptive Studies(cont.)
• The simplest descriptive study concerns a univariate
question or hypothesis in which we ask about, or
state something about, the size, form, distribution,
or existence of a variable.
• In the account analysis at BankChoice we might be
interested in developing a profile of savers.
The question:
What percentage of the savers live within a
two-mile radius of the office?
Using the hypothesis format
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→60 percentage or more of the savers
live within a two-mile radius of the
office.
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Descriptive Studies(cont.)
• Cross-tabulations between the distance from the account
owner’s residence or employment to the branch and
account activity may suggest that different rates of activity
are related to account owner location.
• The correlation between nearness to the office and the
probability of having an account at the office suggested the
question
Why would people who live far from the office have
an account there?
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Descriptive Studies(cont.)
• It might be hypothesized that:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Distant savers have accounts at the office because they once
lived near the office; they were “near” when the account
decision was made.
Distant savers actually live near the office, but the address on
the account is outside the 2-mile radius; they are “near,” but
the records do not show this.
Distant savers work near the office; they are “near” by virtue of
their work location.
Distant savers are not normally near the office but responded
to a promotion that encouraged savers to bank via computer;
this is another form of “nearness” in which this concept is
transformed into one of “convenience.”
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Causal Studies
• Causation is that A “produces” B or A “forces” B to occur.
• Meeting the ideal standard of causation:
requires that one variable always causes another and no
other variable has the same causal effect.
• John Stuart Mill:
Mills Method of Agreement
“ When two or more cases of a given phenomenon have one
and only one condition in common, then that condition may
be regarded as the cause (or effect) of the phenomenon.”
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Mills Method of Agreement
Exhibit 6-4 Mills Method of Agreement
The method of agreement helps rule out some variables
as irrelevant.
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Causal Studies(cont.)
• The negative canon of agreement states that where
the absence of C is associated with the absence of Z,
there is evidence of a causal relationship between C
and Z.
negative
canon of
agreement
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Method of
Agreement
Method of
Difference
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Mills Method of Difference
Exhibit 6-4 Mills Method of Difference
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Evidence of Causality
• In testing causal hypotheses, we seek three
types of evidence:
1. Covariation between A and B
2. Time order of events moving in the hypothesized
direction
3. No other possible causes of B
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Causation and Experimental Design
• In addition to these conditions successful inferencemaking from experimental design must meet two
other requirements.
Control
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Random
Assignment
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Causation and
Experimental Design(cont.)
 If we consider the possible relationships that can occur
between two variables, we can conclude there are
three possibilities:
• Symmetrical
one in which two variables fluctuate together, but we assume the
changes in neither variable are due to changes in the other.
• Reciprocal
when two variables mutually influence or reinforce each other
• Asymmetrical
we postulate that changes in one variable(IV) are responsible for
changes in another variable(DV)
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Asymmetrical Relationships
Stimulus-Response
Property-Behavior
Asymmetrical
Relationships
Property-Disposition
Disposition-Behavior
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Types of Asymmetrical Causal
Relationships
Exhibit 6-6 Four Types of Asymmetrical Causal Relationships
Relationship Type
Stimulus-response
Nature of
Relationship
An event or change
results in a response
from some object.
Examples
•
•
A change in work rules leads to a higher level of
worker output.
A change in government economic policy
restricts corporate financial decisions.
A price increase results in fewer unit sales.
•
Property-disposition
An existing property
causes a disposition.
•
•
•
Age and attitudes about saving.
Gender attitudes toward social issues.
Social class and opinions about taxation.
Disposition-behavior
A disposition causes a
specific behavior.
•
•
•
Opinions about a brand and its purchase.
Job satisfaction and work output.
Moral values and tax cheating.
An existing property
causes a specific
behavior.
•
Stage of the family life cycle and purchases of
furniture.
Social class and family savings patterns.
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Age and sports participation.
Property-behavior
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•
•
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